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Study Resources (Anatomy And Physiology)

5)  Use the accompanying figure to summarize how signals are conducted through and transmitted from a conventional multipolar neuron. To complement you summary, indicate on the illustration where various events occur. 6) Discuss the synthesis, packaging, transport, and release of conventional small and large types of neurotransmitters. 7)  Discuss three ways.
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31)  During an action potential, the change in membrane potential associated with the influx of sodium ions triggers the A) opening of sodium channels. B) closing of chloride channels. C) opening of chloride channels. D) closing of potassium channels. E) opening of potassium channels. 32)  The end of the rising.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient's reaction to A) facial nerve stimulation. B) electroencephalography. C) cold water flushed in the ear. D) needles inserted in the face. E) needles inserted in the foot. 2)  The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point.
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71)  Second messengers are formed in the A) presynaptic neuron. B) postsynaptic neuron. C) synaptic cleft. D) vesicles. E) mitochondria. 72)  Autoreceptors are commonly found in A) somas. B) postsynaptic membranes. C) presynaptic membranes. D) synaptic vesicles. E) ribosomes. 73)  Autoreceptors of a neuron are sensitive to the neuron's own.
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11)  The enzyme that deactivates acetylcholine after it has been released into the synapse is __________. 12)  __________ are sometimes called electrical synapses. 13)  With respect to size, neuropeptides are the __________ neurotransmitters. 14)  The most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain is __________. 15)  All __________ neurotransmitters are.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system. 2)  The arachnoid membrane is one of the __________. 3)  Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain. 4)  Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________. 5)  At the junction of the cell body and axon.
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11)  Which of the following is a passive force that acts to encourage Na+ ions to enter resting neurons? A) random motion, which tends to move ions down their concentration gradients B) electrostatic pressure, which forces ions down their electrostatic gradients C) sodium-potassium pumps, which distribute Na+ and K+ ions.
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11)  Gene __________ techniques are used to create organisms that lack particular genes. 12)  The test of intelligence that is most frequently used in neuropsychological assessment is abbreviated __________. 13)  A commonly used test of short-term memory is the __________ subtest of the WAIS. 14)  In the open-field test, fearful.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  "Reptilian stare" is sometimes used to describe the widely opened, unblinking eyes and motionless face of A) Parkinson's disease. B) multiple sclerosis. C) old age. D) infancy. E) Alzheimer's disease. 2)  Dopamine is not an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease because A) dopaminergic neurons are restricted to.
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61) Which method was used to record this signal? A) extracellular unit recording B) intracellular unit recording C) electroencephalography D) integrated multiple unit recording E) plethysmography 62)  Multiple-unit signals are typically A) recorded through microelectrodes. B) recorded through electrodes that are larger than microelectrodes. C) integrated, or added together, to facilitate their interpretation. D) both A.
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91)  Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information? A) pons B) red nucleus C) lateral geniculate D) substantia nigra E) ventral posterior 92)  The lateral geniculate nuclei, medial geniculate nuclei, and ventral posterior nuclei are all A) diencephalic nuclei. B) thalamic nuclei. C) sensory relay nuclei. D) all.
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31)  The photopic spectral sensitivity curve of a person can be determined by having the person report the A) intensity of various wavelengths of light shone on the fovea. B) brightness of various wavelengths of light shone on the fovea. C) intensity of various wavelengths of light shone on the.
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121)  In operant conditioning paradigms, the rate of a voluntary response is increased by __________ and decreased by __________. A) positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement B) reinforcement; punishment C) brain stimulation; food D) food; brain stimulation E) conditional stimuli; unconditional stimuli 122)  The self-stimulation paradigm is A) a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm..
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101)  Brain damage may produce selective language deficits associated with the sounds, grammar, or meaning of language. In other words, they may disrupt A) syntax, phonology, or semantics, respectively. B) phonology, semantics, or syntax, respectively. C) phonology, syntax, or semantics, respectively. D) semantics, syntax, or phonology, respectively. E) semantics, phonology,.
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5)  Describe both the paired-image subtraction and the averaging techniques that are used in cognitive neuroscience research. Why are they employed? 6)  Describe the conditioned taste aversion phenomenon and how it changed how researchers thought about learning. 7)  Your text describes three categories of paradigms for studying the behavior of.
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61)  The release of neurotransmitter molecules from buttons is often triggered by A) an efflux of sodium ions. B) an influx of calcium ions. C) the sodium-potassium pump. D) the arrival of an AP at the axon hillock. E) the release of calcium ions from the buttons. 62)  Once released,.
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81)  The brainbow technique A) is an extension of the green fluorescent protein technique. B) is a technique for labeling neurons in an animal different colors so that each can be traced. C) has not yet been applied to neural tissue in multicellular animals. D) both A and B E) both A and C 82)  A.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Describe and compare the various techniques commonly used for obtaining structural images of the brains of neurological patients. 2)  Describe and compare the various methods for recording the electrical activity of the brain through invasive electrodes. 3)  Describe the modern customized-test-battery approach to assessing the.
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41)  The bleaching of rhodopsin by light A) triggers inhibitory effects. B) closes rod sodium channels. C) hyperpolarizes the rods. D) reduces the release of glutamate from rods. E) all of the above 42)  The retina-geniculate-striate system terminates in the A) striate cortex. B) primary visual cortex. C) neocortex of.
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31)  Electrooculography is A) usually performed with one electrode mounted on each cornea. B) a method of estimating eye movement. C) a method of measuring skin conductance. D) an indirect method of measuring pupil constriction. E) both A and B 32)  Electrooculography is a technique for monitoring A) penile engorgement..
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101)  Nitric oxide A) is a soluble gas neurotransmitter. B) is considered to be an unconventional neurotransmitter. C) participates in retrograde synaptic transmission. D) all of the above E) both A and B 102)  Soluble-gas neurotransmitters A) are synthesized in the neural cytoplasm. B) once synthesized, immediately diffuse through the.
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51)  Both presynaptic facilitation and inhibition are mediated by A) axoaxonic synapses. B) axodendritic synapses. C) dendrodendritic synapses. D) axosomatic synapses. E) both A and D 52)  Neurotransmitters are often stored in A) aluminum foil. B) ribosomes. C) synaptic vesicles. D) nodes of Ranvier. E) the synaptic cleft. 53)  Neurotransmitter.
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91)  Color perception would be of less survival value if the color of an object A) did not change under different illumination. B) changed under different illumination. C) were not a hue. D) were not chromatic. E) were influenced by its wavelength. same under the vastly different viewing conditions characteristic.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  The patient is often injected with radioactive 2-DG before positron emission  __________. 2)  The two most common techniques for producing images of human brain function are PET and functional __________. 3)  A technique for disrupting activity of an area of cortex in healthy human volunteers is transcranial  __________.
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51)  A temporary or reversible lesion can be produced by A) excision or cutting. B) aspiration or suction. C) cooling the target brain structure or injecting an anesthetic into it. D) radio-frequency current. E) invasive EEG. 52)  Reversible lesions can be produced by microinjection directly into the target brain structure.
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21)  Which of the following biopsychologists would be most likely to study cortical ERPs in human volunteers? A) a neuropsychologist B) a psychophysiologist C) a physiological psychologist D) a psychopharmacologist 22)  Signal averaging is commonly used in the recording of ERPs because it reduces the magnitude of A) large signals..
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81)  Glial cells have been shown to A) release chemical transmitters. B) contain receptors for neurotransmitters. C) conduct signals. D) influence synaptic transmission. E) all of the above 82)  Recent technological developments have led to the discovery of __________ throughout the mammalian brain; they seem to link the activities of.
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Essay and other Multiple-mark Questions 1)  How are the membrane potentials of neurons recorded? Explain the ionic mechanisms thought to be responsible for the resting potential. 2)  Describe the integration (summation) of postsynaptic potentials. Draw graphs illustrating the five basic types of summation. Discuss how these types of summation interact in.
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91)  Which of the following is not a monoamine? A) acetylcholine B) dopamine C) epinephrine D) serotonin E) norepinephrine 92)  Which of the following are synthesized from tyrosine? A) monoamines B) indolamines C) catecholamines D) amino acids E) both A and B 93)  In the presence of the appropriate enzyme,.
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11)  The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________. 12)  The large, two-lobed subcortical structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________. 13)  The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus. 14)  The cerebral hemispheres are connected by tracts called cerebral __________. 15)  The temporal lobe.
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101)  The large cortical ridges between fissures are called A) sulci. B) pyramids. C) gyri. D) commissures. E) lobes. 102)  Big is to small as fissures are to A) gyri. B) pyramids. C) commissures. D) gyrus. E) sulci. 103)  The largest cerebral commissure is the A) corpus callosum. B) massa.
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111)  Drugs that bind to a neurotransmitter's receptors on the postsynaptic membrane without activating them are A) receptor blockers. B) agonists of the neurotransmitter. C) antagonists of the neurotransmitter. D) both A and B E) both A and C 112)  Drugs that degrade vesicles and cause the neurotransmitter molecules to.
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71)  Cerebral dialysis is a method of A) stimulating the brain. B) stimulating the neuroendocrine system. C) measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals at particular sites in the brains of active animals. D) 6-OHDA. E) recording AEPs. 72)  Which of the following is a technique for locating.
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111)  In the open-field test, a high bolus count is frequently used as an indicator of A) aggression. B) fearfulness. C) motor activity. D) attention. E) defense. 112)  In the open-field test, thigmotaxia is often used as a measure of A) body temperature. B) fearfulness. C) sexual motivation. D) obesity..
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41)  Penile erection is A) a muscular response. B) an electromyographic response. C) a plethysmographic response. D) a sphygmomanometric response. E) an aberrant response. 42)  Stereotaxic surgery in human patients typically requires  A) a stereotaxic atlas. B) a stereotaxic instrument. C) a head holder. D) an electrode holder. E) all.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  In order to record a membrane potential, the tip of a __________ must be inserted inside the cell. 2)  Pump mechanisms in the cell membrane of neurons pump __________ ions out of the neuron to maintain the membrane potential. 4)  EPSPS are conducted passively, rapidly, and __________. 5) .
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 2) Label and define each of the 9 identified parts of this typical multipolar neuron. 3)  There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions. How is our understanding of glial cells currently changing? 4)  Compare Golgi and Nissl.
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71)  Neurons of the primary visual cortex that have receptive fields that can be divided into static "on" areas and "off" areas separated by straight edges are A) geniculate cells. B) binocular cells. C) simple cells. D) complex cells. E) hypercomplex cells. 72)  Simple cells of the primary visual cortex.
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5)  With the use of diagrams, describe all neuroanatomical directions in a conventional vertebrate (e.g., cat) nervous system and in the human nervous system. 6)  Draw a lateral view of the human cerebral hemispheres. Illustrate the four lobes and label four other structures. 7)  Draw a midsagittal section of the.
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1)  Prior to migraine attacks, sufferers often experience A) headaches. B) fortification illusions. C) indigestion. D) amnesia. E) agnosia. 2)  A fortification illusion often begins with A) a headache. B) a seizure. C) a gray area of blindness near the center of the visual field. D) a zigzag pattern of.
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81)  Recent studies of the function of primary visual cortex neurons using natural visual scenes rather than simple artificial stimuli have discovered that A) some neurons respond only to trees. B) some neurons respond only to color. C) visual neurons are plastic: As a background scene changes, the way that.
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