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161) Observational learning theory's foremost proponent is __________. a. Watson b. Thorndike c. Skinner d. Bandura 162) A key to observational learning is ____________. a. insight learning b. cognitive mapping c. latent learning d. imitation 163) According to observational theory, a child who pretends she is smoking because she saw her favourite TV star smoking would be learning through ______________. a..
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1) __________ is a change in an organism's behaviour or knowledge brought about by experience. a. Learning b. Adaptation c. Memory enhancement d. Accommodation 2) Which of the following is true of learning? a. Learning is the process that allows a species to slowly adapt over generations. b. All learning involves the acquisition of new knowledge and.
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131) Which of the following would be classified as a secondary reinforcer? a. a sandwich b. the word good c. reduction of pain d. a drink of soda 132) Which of the following is a primary reinforcer? a. a sandwich b. praise c. money d. grades 133) Electric shock, scoldings, and bad grades are a. secondary reinforcers. b. primary reinforcers. c. aversive stimuli. d..
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21) Salivation in response to food being placed in the mouth and an eye blink response to a puff of air are both examples of _______________. a. unconditioned stimuli b. conditioned responses c. conditioned stimuli d. unconditioned responses 22) An experimenter finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he sees.
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51) Spontaneous recovery a. occurs before the pairing of the CS and US. b. occurs after a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement. c. is an unlearned response. d. can occur once a response has been extinguished. 52) Taste aversions seem to be specific examples of what type of learning? a. classical conditioning b. insight learning c. vicarious learning d..
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76) Stimulus discrimination a. is a response followed by a reinforcer. b. occurs when responses are made to stimuli that are similar to the original CS. c. is the removal of a stimulus. d. occurs when responses are made to certain stimuli, but not to others. 77) When a CR has been conditioned to a.
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46) As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of ______________. a. operant conditioning b. observational learning c. classical conditioning d. habituation 47) Who was Albert B..
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61) Little Albert learned through classical conditioning to fear ______. a. brown cats b. black dogs c. white rats d. his mother 62) If a rat has learned to press a lever to obtain pellets of food and, all of a sudden, the response permanently ceases to produce any food, then _______ will occur. a. shaping b..
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6) Learning that involves processes such as reading, listening, and test taking is called ________ learning. 7) One of the primary mechanisms that allows observational learning to take place is ________, the recreating of a motor behaviour or expression, often to accomplish a specific goal. 8) The four processes involved in ________.
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166) Which scenario would result in the fastest acquisition of a classically conditioned response? a. Hugh repeatedly rings a bell after he gives his dog a bone, over multiple trials. b. Hugh rings a bell and then gives his dog a treat 30 minutes later,over multiple trials. c. Hugh makes his dog “play.
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101) Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer? a. a bar of candy b. warm, physical contact c. money d. a drink of water 102) Nagging someone to do something until they do it is an example of __________. a. negative reinforcement b. aversive conditioning c. punishment d. positive reinforcement 103) A reinforcer that adds something rewarding to a.
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46) By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, salivation to the meat was the _______. a. unconditioned stimulus b. unconditioned response c. conditioned stimulus d. conditioned response 47) An experimenter.
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66) The process of learning to respond only to a single specific object or event is called _________ . a. extinction b. inhibition c. stimulus generalization d. discrimination 67) Reacting to a stimulus that is similar to the one you have learned to react to is called ___________ . a. stimulus generalization b. response generalization c. higher-order conditioning d..
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151) Operant conditioning assumes that a. events that follow behaviour affect whether the behaviour is repeated in the future. b. one's mental processes (e.g., memory and perception) mediate what behaviours one does in a situation. c. voluntary behaviours are reflexive. d. one learns by watching others' behaviour. 152) Peggy wanted to teach her dog how.
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16) When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increased. Luke always wore Old Spice aftershave. Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart raced. Luke's kiss was the _______________. a. unconditioned stimulus b. unconditioned response c. conditioned stimulus d. conditioned response 17) The classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence.
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116) Which of the following is NOT negative reinforcement? a. turning off an electric shock b. giving a spanking c. removing a noxious odour d. silencing a banging door 117) Which of the following is a primary reinforcer? a. grades b. water c. money d. recognition 118) Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer? a. water b. food c. grades d. physical support 119).
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71) A small boy has just recently delighted his parents because he learned to call his father ”daddy.” However, it has now become an embarrassment to his mother when she takes him out with her because he keeps calling other men ”daddy.” This is an example of a. associative linkage. b. generalization. c..
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21) New learning that works in the opposite direction from the original learning results in ________. a. shaping b. generalization c. spontaneous recovery d. extinction 22) Many animals fear snakes, what does research suggest is the source of this fear? a. operant conditioning b. instinct c. classical conditioning d. shaping 23) Rachel has found that when she opens up the.
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3) Principles of operant conditioning have been used to help explain why people get attached to "lucky" hats, charms, and rituals. Using these principles, explain how an athlete might show this type of behaviour. How did Skinner demonstrate the phenomenon of superstitious behaviour with pigeons in his laboratory?     .
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126) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is called a ________ reinforcer. a. positive b. negative c. primary d. secondary 127) The 5-year-old child of two very busy parents has been throwing tantrums. Whenever the child goes off the deep end, one or both of his parents immediately come to his side.
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86) A person originally feared great heights, such as standing on top of tall buildings. Now the person has also developed fears of flying in airplanes, standing on ladders, and even watching high-wire artists perform. These new fears are probably the result of _______. a. modelling b. discrimination c. stimulus generalization d. response generalization 87).
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a. neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus b. neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus c. unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus d. unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus 2. Most mornings, Becky listens to her favourite song as she gets ready for work, including putting in her contacts. One afternoon, Becky hears her favourite song playing, and her eyes start watering—something that.
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171) Which scenario is an example of negative reinforcement? a. Cheyenne was a good girl at daycare, so her mother relieved her from her evening chores. b. Zane did not do his homework when he got home from school, so his mother took away his video games. c. Devin was speeding, so the.
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76) A _____________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, motivational need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch. a. primary b. negative c. token d. secondary 77) __________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas __________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer. a. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement b. Money; receiving an A+ c..
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56) One of the best-known examples of classical conditioning in humans was the Little Albert study, conducted by _______. a. Pavlov b. Freud c. Watson d. Skinner 57) In the classic study of fear conditioning in a human infant (the ”Albert” experiment), what was the CS? a. the rat b. the rabbit c. the loud noise d. the crying.
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91) Thorndike conducted research on a. operant conditioning. b. classical conditioning. c. shaping. d. higher-order conditioning. 92) Thorndike's main apparatus in his operant conditioning research was a. a wire monkey. b. a cognitive map. c. a puzzle box. d. a buzzer. 93) A negative reinforcment takes place when a stimulus is ________ and thus ________ the probability of a response. a..
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81) Corky's mouth waters when he sees Ball Park Franks, but not when he sees other brands of franks. This response is known as a. extinction. b. discrimination. c. generalization. d. intelligence. 82) The opposite of stimulus generalization is a. stimulus discrimination. b. unconditioned stimulus. c. conditioned stimulus. d. response generalization. 83) Reacting to a stimulus that is similar to.
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66) The term operant refers to the fact that, in operant conditioning, a. the organism must operate on the environment before consequences can occur. b. reinforcers and punishers operate on the organism to change its behaviour. c. the US operates on the CS to change its association with the CR. d. the experimenter operates.
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26) In Pavlov's “salivating dogs” studies, the CR was _____________. a. salivation b. food c. sound d. biting 27) In Pavlov's “salivating dogs” studies, the salivation triggered by the sound or tone was the ________________. a. conditioned stimulus b. unconditioned response c. conditioned response d. unconditioned stimulus 28) Which of the following statements pertaining to the conditioned response is accurate? a..
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6) Before studying conditioning, Ivan Pavlov studied ______________. a. cardiac physiology b. canine anatomy c. digestive processes d. the endocrine system 7) Ivan Pavlov is most closely associated with ______________. a. vicarious learning b. the law of effect c. operant conditioning d. classical conditioning 8) Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by.
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111) Training a rat to push a lever to escape from an electric shock is an example of a. aversive punishment. b. negative reinforcement. c. positive reinforcement. d. response cost. 112) Positive reinforcement a. weakens behaviours they follow. b. is always learned. c. strengthens behaviours it follows. d. is always unlearned. 113) Which of the following statements about positive reinforcement.
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56) People appear to have a biological predisposition to associate nausea with what type of stimuli? a. lights b. tastes c. smells d. sounds 57) Which of the following is one of the ways in which conditioned taste aversions are NOT like other forms of classical conditioning? a. Conditioned taste aversions do not require a CS. b..
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71) Thorndike conducted research on ______________. a. operant conditioning b. classical conditioning c. shaping d. higher-order conditioning 72) Operant conditioning is most closely associated with ________________. a. John Watson b. Ivan Pavlov c. B. F. Skinner d. John Garcia 73) A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research involving ________________. a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. latent learning d. observational.
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156) Which type of learning occurs when we observe other people act? a. operant conditioning b. classical conditioning c. insight learning d. observational learning 157) What do we call learning that has taken place but is not demonstrated? a. insight learning b. serial enumeration c. latent learning d. shaping 158) Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a.
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141) Which of the following is NOT negative reinforcement? a. turning off an electric shock b. slamming a door c. removing a noxious odor d. silencing a banging door 142) Which of the following is a primary reinforcer? a. grades b. water c. money d. recognition 143) Billy throws rocks. Each time he throws a rock, he is immediately spanked..
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146) The apparatus that has come to symbolize the theory of operant conditioning is the a. Rubik's cube. b. Skinner box. c. Pavlov bell. d. Thorndike puzzle. 147) An example of a behaviour that is learned through operant conditioning is _____________. a. blinking in response to a flash of light b. studying in order to get a.
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96) On a variable-interval schedule, reinforcement is given for the __________. a. first correct response after a fixed amount of time has passed b. first correct response after varying amounts of time have passed c. next correct response after a fixed number of responses have occurred d. next correct response after a varying number.
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121) When someone uses negative reinforcement to change a behaviour, the behaviour is likely to ______. a. decrease b. increase c. remain the same d. completely stop 122) When someone uses punishment to change a behaviour, the behaviour is likely to ______. a. decrease b. increase c. remain the same d. generalize 123) Which of the following statements is true? a..
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41) When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increased. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave. Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart raced. Luke's kiss was the a. unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned response. c. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response. 42) When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increased. Luke always wore Old Spice After.
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