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Study Resources (Anatomy And Physiology)

11)  Developing cells that have the potential to develop into neurons of any type but into no other class of body cells are said to be A) multipotent. B) totipotent. C) multipolar. D) pluripotent. E) unipolar. 12)  The neural plate develops directly into the A) neural tube. B) neural groove. C).
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51)  Which midbrain structure receives visual and auditory information about spatial location? A) tectum B) cerebellum C) basal ganglia D) tegmentum E) vestibular nucleus 52)  In contrast to the axons of the descending dorsolateral motor pathways, individual axons of the ventromedial pathways often terminate A) directly on motor neurons. B).
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21)  Neurons that fire in response to making a particular response, observing somebody else making the response, or just thinking about the response are called A) supplementary motor neurons. B) premotor neurons. C) mirror neurons. D) ballistic neurons. E) somatotopic neurons. 22)  The somatotopic map of the primary motor cortex is.
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31)  A deficit in the ability to recognize objects by touch is called A) apraxia. B) asomatognosia. C) stereognosis. D) astereognosia. E) homunculus. 32)  The effects of damage to the primary motor cortex include A) astereognosia. B) difficulty in moving one part of the body independently of others. C) paralysis..
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Areas of neocortex that receive most of their input from the thalamic relay nuclei of one sensory system are classified as A) association cortex. B) tertiary cortex. C) motor cortex. D) secondary sensory cortex. E) primary sensory cortex. 2)  An area of cerebral cortex that receives substantial.
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11)  Strokes are caused by A) tardive penumbra. B) cerebral hemorrhage. C) cerebral ischemia. D) all of the above E) both B and C 12)  Which of the following is most likely to lead to an intracerebral hemorrhage? A) a bursting aneurysm B) a hematoma C) cerebral ischemia D) thrombosis.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  Depth of focus is usually greater when the pupils are __________. 2)  Accommodation is controlled by the __________ muscles. 3)  The first retinal neurons encountered by light entering the eye are the retinal __________ cells. 4)  The retinal indentation that mediates high-acuity vision is the __________. 5)  The.
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71)  Muscle spindles provide the CNS with information about muscle A) fatigue. B) length. C) tension. D) color. E) location. 72) The muscle at the end of the pointer line is A) an intrafusal muscle. B) an extrafusal muscle. C) a skeletal muscle. D) both A and C E) Both B and C 73) The.
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5)  Discuss the anatomy, circuitry, and function of muscle spindles. Use diagrams of the muscle spindle feedback circuit in your answer. 6)  Discuss the concept of central sensorimotor programs. Describe and discuss three of their important features. 7)  Many aspects of the sensory motor system are demonstrated by the chapter-ending.
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81)  Adult stem cells that ultimately migrate to the olfactory bulbs are created at certain sites in the A) subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. B) ependymal layer. C) hippocampus. D) all of the above E) both A and B 82)  Adult stem cells that ultimately become hippocampal dentate gyrus.
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71)  Astereognosia and asomatognosia are the two major types of A) touch blindness. B) apraxia. C) somatosensory agnosia. D) contralateral neglect. E) stereognosis. 72)  Harold Klawans's neurological case of Aunt Betty suffered from a form of A) asomatognosia. B) prosopagnosia. C) color agnosia. D) stereognosis. E) anosmia. 73)  Asomatognosia is.
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5)  Explain color constancy. What important points does it make about the mechanisms of color vision? Describe a theory of color vision that can explain color constancy, focusing on the evidence that led to the theory. 6)  Describe the dorsal and ventral streams. Describe two theories of their functional difference.
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11)  The Mach band demonstration is an excellent demonstration of contrast __________. 12)  About half the complex cells in monkey primary visual cortex are __________. 13)  Most binocular neurons in monkey primary visual cortex display __________. 14)  The discovery that there are three kinds of cones, each with a different.
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81)  Recurrent collateral inhibition is mediated by A) cocontraction. B) Renshaw cells. C) Golgi organs. D) muscle spindles. E) reciprocal innervation. 82)  If given the correct sensory feedback, the cat spinal cord is capable of controlling A) walking movements. B) volition. C) problem solving. D) the grasp reflex. E) astereognosia..
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71)  Early monocular deprivation A) eliminates ocular dominance columns. B) decreases the width of ocular dominance columns from the deprived eye. C) increases the width of ocular dominance columns from the nondeprived eye. D) causes ocular dominance columns to develop sooner. E) both B and C 72)  How long does.
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101)  Although it is somewhat arbitrary, primary olfactory cortex is considered to be A) piriform cortex. B) in the thalamus. C) in the orbits. D) olfactory bulbs. E)  in the glomeruli. 102)  Olfactory neocortex is considered to be in the A) occipital lobe. B) thalamus. C) parietal lobe. D) piriform cortex..
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Essay and other miltiple-mark Questions 1)  Discuss the developmental progression from totipotency, to pluripotency, to multipotency, to total specification. Why are embryonic stem cells so interesting to medical researchers? 2)  Describe Sperry's eye-rotation experiments and the important theoretical point that they made. 3)  Discuss the increase in size of the human.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  The only movements that are not greatly influenced by sensory feedback are __________ movements. 2)  The area of association cortex that is thought to integrate the spatial information that is required to initiate an accurate movement is the __________ cortex. 3)  Patients with __________ have particular difficulty making.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  When the lips of the neural __________ fuse, the result is the neural tube. 2)  Radial migration of developing neurons occurs along __________ glial cells. 3)  The cortex develops in six waves of radial migration. These waves occur in an __________ pattern. 4)  The neural __________ is situated.
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31)  Which of the following are amoebalike in their appearance and movements? A) growth cones B) ependymal cells C) neural cell-adhesion molecules D) radial glial cells E) retinal ganglion cells 32)  At the tip of each growing axon or dendrite is an amoebalike process called A) an amoeba cell. B).
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31) The arrow points to A) the central fissure. B) vestibular cortex. C) gustatory cortex. D) auditory cortex. E) olfactory cortex. 32)  Neurons of the monkey secondary auditory cortex respond robustly to A) bird calls. B) pure tones. C) monkey calls. D) the location of sounds. E) pitch. 33)  Investigators have proposed that in each hemisphere,.
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61)  Which of the following somatosensory structures do not receive substantial input from the anterolateral system? A) dorsal column nuclei B) tectum C) reticular formation D) colliculi E) thalamus 62)  The ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus receive direct input from the A) dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system. B) spinotectal tract. C).
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41) The descending pathway illustrated here is the A) dorsolateral corticorubrospinal tract. B) dorsolateral corticospinal tract. C) ventromedial corticospinal tract. D) ventromedial cortico-brainstem-spinal tract. E) none of the above 42)  The decussation in the medullary pyramids is part of the A) dorsolateral corticospinal tract. B) dorsolateral corticorubrospinal tract. C) ventromedial corticospinal tract. D) ventromedial cortico-brainstem-spinal tract..
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101)  Scotomas are located by A) triangulation. B) perimetry. C) topography. D) scotometry. E) scatology. 102)  Many neuropsychological patients with scotomas are unaware of them because of A) completion. B) hindsight. C) hemianopsia. D) binding. 103)  Hemianopsic patients who focus on the tip of a person's nose sometimes A) experience.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  Sensory systems are hierarchical, parallel, and __________ segregated. 2)  The three ossicles transmit auditory vibrations from the ear drum to the __________ window. 3)  The organ of Corti comprises the tectorial membrane, hair cells, and __________ membrane. 4)  The organization of the auditory system is not retinotopic; it.
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41)  The sense of touch is largely A) exteroceptive. B) proprioceptive. C) interoceptive. D) nociceptive. E) slow-adapting. 42)  Nociceptive stimuli are A) exteroceptive. B) mechanical. C) thermal. D) painful. E) bad. 43)  The cutaneous somatosensory system responds to A) nociceptive stimuli. B) thermal stimuli. C) mechanical stimuli. D) all of.
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11) In the 1980s, adult neurogenesis was convincingly documented in __________ before being described in mammals. 12)  In mammals, substantial adult neurogenesis occurs only in the __________ and hippocampuses. 13)  Adult neural stem cells that eventually migrate to the olfactory bulbs are created at certain sites in the layer of.
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11)  Neurons descending from the primary motor cortex in the corticorubrospinal tract synapse in the __________ before the tract reaches the spinal cord. 12)  The two descending __________ motor pathways control movements of the trunk. 13)  The number of motor neurons in a motor unit is __________. 15)  Two muscles.
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21)  Brain damage following ischemic strokes seems to be caused by A) NMDA buildup. B) excessive serotonin release. C) an imbalance of GABA. D) norepinephrine inhibition. E) excessive glutamate release. 22)  Following cerebral ischemia, A) glutamate is released in excessive quantities. B) excessive activity is induced at NMDA receptors. C).
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51)  The destruction of a single dorsal root typically produces little somatosensory loss because A) there are few cutaneous receptors in the back. B) the dorsal roots soon degenerate. C) there is considerable overlap of projections from adjacent dermatomes. D) the dorsal roots accurately regenerate. E) the somatosensory system has.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Discuss and compare photopic and scotopic vision. Discuss four of their differences being sure to include convergence and spectral sensitivity in your discussion. 2)  Draw the retina-geniculate-striate system and label its parts. 3)  The visual system has evolved to perceive edges. Discuss. Include the research.
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Essay Questions 1)  Discuss three principles of sensorimotor function. 50% for discussion of the three principles 2)  Discuss the two effects of damage to the posterior parietal cortex. 3)  Discuss the organization and functions of primary motor cortex. Compare the traditional view with the modern view, emphasizing the relevant evidence. 4) .
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61)  The course of human cognitive development is thought to reflect development in the A) prefrontal cortex. B) hippocampus. C) secondary neocortex. D) posterior parietal cortex. E) hypothalamus. 62)  The prefrontal cortex seems to play a role in A) working memory. B) planning and carrying out sequences of action. C).
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91)  The axons of the olfactory receptors run through the A) olfactory bulb to the thalamus. B) olfactory bulb to the paleocortex. C) cribriform plate to the thalamus. D) cribriform plate to the olfactory bulbs. E) olfactory epithelium to olfactory cortex. 92)  Various parts of olfactory receptor cells can be.
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111)  Unlike the projections of the other exteroceptive sensory systems, the projections of the gustatory system are primarily A) contralateral. B) ipsilateral. C) unilateral. D) bilateral. E) descending. 112)  Gustation is to olfaction as A) flavor is to odor. B) onions are to potatoes. C) thalamus is to neocortex. D).
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51)  Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not involve A) neuron death. B) inflammation. C) suicide. D) degeneration. E) synapse rearrangement. 52)  Neurotrophins A) are life-preserving chemicals for neurons. B) are supplied to neurons by their synaptic targets. C) promote neuron death. D) both A and B E).
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11)  The axons of dorsal column nuclei decussate and then ascend in the medial lemniscus to the ventral posterior nucleus of the __________ . 12)  The spinothalamic, spinoreticular, and spinotectal somatosensory tracts are all part of the __________ system. 13)  Primary __________ cortex is in the postcentral gyrus. 14)  SI.
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111)  According to Ungerleider and Mishkin, "where" is to "what" as A) dorsal stream is to ventral stream. B) agnosia is to blindsight. C) ventral stream is to dorsal stream. D) visual perception is to spatial perception. E) contrast vision is to color vision. 112)  In contrast to the "where".
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11)  The loudness, pitch, and timbre of a sound are directly related to the __________, respectively, of the vibrations that produced it. A) frequency, amplitude, and complexity B) amplitude, complexity, and frequency C) amplitude, frequency, and complexity D) complexity, frequency, and amplitude E) none of the above 12)  The frequency.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Like the sensory systems, the sensorimotor system is A) hierarchical. B) parallel. C) functionally segregated. D) all of the above E) none of the above 2)  Which of the following is a principle of sensorimotor organization? A) The sensorimotor system is hierarchically organized. B) Motor output is.
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21)  In addition to the radial migration of developing neurons, there is considerable __________ migration. A) rapid B) tangential C) intermediate D) circuitous E) axonal 22) The pattern of neural migration that is indicated by the arrows in this illustration is A) radial. B) tangential. C) inside out. D) outside in. E) posterior. 23)  There seem.
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81)  Electrical stimulation of which of the following structures has analgesic effects? A) SII B) periaqueductal gray C) paraventricular nuclei D) ventral posterior nuclei E) medial lemniscus 82)  Morphine is an A) analgesic. B) opiate. C) endogenously produced. D) both A and B E) both A and C 83)  The.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  The modern model of sensory system organization features three important principles. Name them and explain them. Draw a representation of the modern model. 2)  Discuss current knowledge of auditory cortex, emphasizing both difficulties and successes. 4)  The chemical senses are unique in several ways. Describe.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  The 8th cranial nerve A) is a sensory nerve that comes from the ear. B) carries auditory information. C) carries vestibular information. D) all of the above E) both A and B 2)  The 8th cranial nerve is the A) auditory-vestibular nerve. B) vagus nerve. C) trigeminal.
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