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Study Resources (Anatomy And Physiology)

101)  Cultural practices that promote obesity include the practice of A) eating three large meals per day whether one is hungry or not. B) serving food at all social gatherings. C) adding sweet, salty, and fatty tastes to foods to increase their positive-incentive value. D) serving food in different courses.
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31)  The punch-drunk syndrome suggests that each individual concussion is associated with A) some lasting damage. B) dementia. C) scarring. D) a contusion. E) meningitis. 32)  The brain inflammation resulting from an infection is termed A) general paresis. B) dementia. C) encephalitis. D) meningitis. E) tardive dyskinesia. 33)  Meningitis is A).
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Essay Questions 1)  Most neuropsychological diseases of genetic origin are not associated with a dominant gene. Explain why this is so, and describe two situations in which there could be an exception to this general principle. Finally, describe a neuropsychological disease associated with a dominant gene, and explain why it is.
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21)  All set-point systems are __________ systems. A) negative feedback B) positive feedback C) no-feedback D) settling point E) positive-incentive 22)  Negative feedback systems in the body tend to maintain A) homeostasis. B) excessive body weight. C) lipolysis. D) glucostats. E) positive incentives. 23)  Set-point negative-feedback systems are one way.
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91)  Diet-induced thermogenesis refers to the increases in body temperature produced by A) eating fats. B) increases in body fat. C) eating carbohydrates. D) eating proteins. E) eating low-calorie diets. 92)  The rate at which resting individuals utilize their energy resources to maintain their basic body processes is A) the.
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41)  The identification of basal forebrain degeneration Alzheimer's disease implicated A) the hippocampus in memory. B) cholinergic neurons in memory. C) the amygdala in memory. D) serotonin in memory. E) dopamine in memory. 42)  In Alzheimer's disease, the brain damage is A) diffuse. B) restricted to the basal ganglia. C).
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4)  It is critical to identify the primary symptom of a disorder. Explain and discuss with respect to Alzheimer's disease and the amyloid hypothesis. What evidence is there for the amyloid hypothesis? Are there alternative hypotheses? 5)  Describe the kindling model. What aspects of epilepsy does it model? 6)  Describe.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  An area of dead tissue produced by a stroke is called an __________. 2)  A thrombus that takes a trip and gets lodged at another site is called an __________. 3)  __________ is the brain's most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter. 4)  The general syndrome of insanity and dementia associated.
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11)  The rhinal cortex (perirhinal cortex + entorhinal cortex) is an area of medial  ___________ cortex. 12)  There is substantial evidence that the__________ plays a major role memory for spatial location. 13)  The radial arm maze can be used to study both reference memory and __________ memory. 14) Many __________ cells are.
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11)  Immediately following a meal, glucose levels in the blood do not increase as much as they otherwise might because A) insulin promotes the use of glucose by the body. B) glucagon promotes lipolysis. C) glucagon promotes lipogenesis. D) glucagon promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen and fat. E).
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61)  Complex partial seizures A) often result from temporal lobe pathology. B) are often characterized by automatisms. C) often include absence attacks. D) all of the above E) both A and B 62)  A professor in the middle of a lecture unbuttoned his shirt and rebuttoned it several times in.
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11)  If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, the probability that you will develop it is __________ %. 12)  __________ is a degenerative brain disorder that attacks CNS myelin. 13)  The __________ phenomenon is a model of epileptogenesis. 14)  __________ mice are mice into which the genes of another.
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91)  Patients with prefrontal cortex damage often display deficits in A) working memory. B) memory for the temporal order of events. C) reference memory. D) all of the above E) both A and B 92)  One patient with prefrontal damage could not cook a meal because she could not A).
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  The first phase of energy metabolism, the one that occurs before the food is absorbed, is the __________ phase. 2)  The phase of energy metabolism that occurs after all of the energy from the most recent meal has been used is the __________ phase. 3)  The pancreatic hormone.
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51)  Research has consistently shown that memory consolidation usually takes about A) 1 minute. B) 10 minutes. C) 1 hour. D) 2 years. E) none of the above 52)  Because H.M.'s surgery seemed to disrupt only those retrograde memories acquired shortly before his surgery, it was once widely believed that.
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61) Illustrated here is one phase of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample task. It is the A) delay phase. B) recall phase. C) sample phase. D) recognition phase. E) choice phase. 62)  In early studies of medial-temporal-lobe amnesia in monkeys, the cortex underlying the hippocampus and amygdala was always damaged because the lesions were A) electrolytic. B) epileptic..
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31)  The anticipated pleasurable effect of eating a particular food is that food's A) nutritive density. B) nutritive value. C) reinforcement. D) reinforcement value. E) positive-incentive value. 32)  According to the positive-incentive theory, the main cause of hunger in food-replete environments is A) a shortage of calories in the body..
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81)  Many hunger and satiety peptides have receptors in the A) hippocampus. B) hypothalamus. C) amygdala. D) prefrontal cortex E) striatum. 82)  __________ have been shown to reduce hunger, eating, and body weight in human patients. A) Glutamate agonists B) Serotonin agonists C) Acetylcholine antagonists D) Dopamine antagonists E) Norepinephrine antagonists 83)  People with __________.
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71)  Parkinson's disease typically strikes in A) infancy. B) childhood. C) adolescence. D) early adulthood. E) middle or late adulthood. 72)  Tremor at rest, muscular rigidity, slowness of movement, and a masklike face are symptoms of A) Down syndrome. B) Parkinson's disease. C) epilepsy. D) Huntington's disease. E) multiple sclerosis..
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111)  Although __________ agonists are effective in the treatment of obesity, they are currently not in wide use because they tend to have dangerous side effects. A) glutamate B) serotonin C) GABA D) acetylcholine E) neuropeptide Y 112) Which surgical procedure is illustrated here? A) gastric bypass B) adjustable gastric band C) sham.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  H.M.'s operation was a bilateral __________ lobectomy.  2)  H.M.'s main problem is that he cannot form new __________ long-term memories. 3)  Medial temporal lobe epileptics often have good explicit long-term memories for __________ information. 4)  R.B. had obvious damage to the __________ subfield of the pyramidal cell layer.
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111)  Kindled convulsions as usually studied do not model epilepsy in one important respect: Unless the kindling is long-term, the kindled convulsions A) are not partial. B) do not occur spontaneously. C) are not generalized. D) are not reliable. E) are not clonic. 112)  The ultimate result of long-term kindling.
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141)  Bilateral transplantation of fetal substantia nigra tissue in monkeys has proven successful in alleviating the symptoms of A) Huntington's disease. B) Alzheimer's disease. C) MPTP poisoning. D) autotransplants. E) epilepsy. 142)  Several clinical case studies have found that Parkinson's patients improve following transplants of __________ , but the treatment.
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11)  As fat accumulates in the body, energy is wasted through a mechanism called diet-induced __________. 12)  The leaky-barrel is a __________ model, not a set-point model. 13)  Mutant mice that are homozygous for the ob gene lack a critical hormone termed __________ 14)  The first hormone to meet the.
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5)  Summarize the evidence that the hippocampus is involved in memory for space. Describe three kinds of evidence, and reach a conclusion. 6)  What is LTP? Why is LTP so interesting to researchers? Describe a specific demonstration of LTP at a hippocampal site of your choice, and include a diagram..
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51)  Sham-eating procedures typically reduce caloric intake into the bloodstream during a meal by A) 100%. B) 40%. C) 60%. D) 80%. E) 20%. 52) Illustrated here is a __________ preparation. A) sham-eating B) VMH-lesioned C) LH-lesioned D) vagotomized E) gastric by-pass 53)  In sham-eating experiments, the first sham eaten meal of a familiar diet.
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101)  Major neuropathological correlates of Alzheimer's disease are A) neurofibrillary tangles in the neural cytoplasm. B) amyloid plaques. C) a selective decline in dopamine levels. D) all of the above E) both A and B 102)  Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease include A) neuron loss. B) severe dementia. C) neurofibrillary tangles..
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71)  Mumby and his colleagues showed that large hippocampal lesions blocked the object-recognition deficits caused in rats by cerebral ischemia when the lesions were A) unilateral but not bilateral. B) contralateral but not ipsilateral. C) made 1 hour, but not 1 week, after the ischemia. D) ipsilateral but not contralateral..
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31)  The mediodorsal nuclei, which are often damaged in cases of Korsakoff's amnesia, are nuclei of the A) thalamus. B) hypothalamus. C) hippocampus. D) cerebellum. E) mammillary bodies. 32)  The up-the-nose case of N.A. had a major impact on theories of amnesia because A) he died soon after his accident,.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Discuss medial temporal lobe amnesia, emphasizing the cases of H.M. and R.B. What have we learned from the study of this disorder? 2)  Discuss Korsakoff's syndrome and the amnesia associated with it. What areas of the brain have been linked to Korsakoff's syndrome, and what.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Hormones influence sexual behavior by A) directing the development of many of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as male or female. B) activating the reproduction-related behavior of sexually mature adults. C) dividing into two separate pools, male hormones and female hormones, which have.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Describe the three phases of energy metabolism, their function, and their regulation by pancreatic hormones. 2)  Compare set-point and positive-incentive theories of hunger and eating. Compare their ability to predict two major research findings. 3)  Discuss the two mechanisms by which rats cope with deficiencies.
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121)  After the axon of a standard multipolar neuron is cut, the cell body sometimes degenerates. This is called __________ degeneration. A) anterograde B) retrograde C) proximal D) distal E) transneuronal 122)  Degeneration of neurons in the visual cortex after damage to the retina is an example of __________ degeneration..
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81)  The first sign of Huntington's disease is often A) increased fidgetiness. B) visual deterioration. C) increased clonus. D) vestibular difficulty. E) attentional difficulty. 82)  Huntington's disease is associated with A) increased fidgetiness. B) jerky, writhing movements of entire limbs. C) severe dementia. D) all of the above E) both.
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71)  Undermining the theory that the VMH is the satiety center is the fact that selective lesions of the __________ nuclei of the hypothalamus lead to hyperphagia and obesity. A) paraventricular B) lateral C) ventromedial D) mammillary E) dorsomedial 72)  One of the first studies of the physiology of hunger.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Many people assume that hunger is normally triggered when energy resources fall A) below a prescribed optimal homeostatic level called a set point. B) to the glucose level. C) to a fat set point. D) to the settling point. E) to the optimal levels of hypothalamic activity. 2)  The.
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5)  Describe the evidence that supported the notion of hypothalamic hunger and satiety centers. Then, describe and discuss the evidence that led to the rejection of this notion. 6)  Compare set-point regulation and settling-point regulation of body weight. Describe and discuss relevant evidence. Which model does it support? 7)  Describe.
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91)  "Sclerosis" literally means A) slippery. B) hardening. C) softening. D) white scar. E) characterized by many tremors. 92)  Multiple sclerosis  A) is associated with damage to the myelin of the CNS. B) is most common in very warm climates. C) occurs at a very high rate in Africans and.
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101)  Illustrated here is a neural circuit in which __________ is commonly studied. A) maintenance B) LTD C) LTP D) amnesia E) forgetting 102)  The main reason why LTP is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it A) involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to.
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