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61) Hermann Ebbinghaus found that memory is best immediately after we learn information, and we gradually forget more as time passes. What name is given to this observation? a. serial position curve b. mirage effect c. free recall curve d. curve of forgetting 62) Last week, Lisa took an abnormal psychology test and did not.
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111) Which of the following is true concerning Tolman and Honzik's classic study of latent learning? a. Rats were able to learn without receiving reinforcement. b. Rats learned when receiving punishment but not when receiving reinforcement. c. Rats were not able to learn if reinforcement was withheld for long periods of time. d. Rats.
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2) Is heuristic thinking good, bad, or somewhere in between? What advantages—if any—are associated with heuristic thinking? Are there disadvantages to using heuristics, and if so, what are they? Use the availability heuristic to provide examples to support your claims. 3) Identify three specific nonhuman primates discussed in your textbook that.
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51) Memories that we are consciously aware of and can verbalize, including facts about the world and one's own personal experiences, are called ______________ memories. a. phonological b. procedural c. nondeclarative d. declarative 52) Which two types of memories are both considered to be types of declarative memory? a. semantic and episodic b. semantic and procedural c. episodic.
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41) The concept of a house would be stored in _______. a. the sensory registers b. short-term memory c. eidetic memory d. long-term memory 42) Our memories of general knowledge items such as the meanings of words or the dates of famous historical events are stored in _______. a. procedural memory b. semantic memory c. episodic memory d. eidetic.
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106) Which of the following statements is true regarding corporal punishment? a. Spanking is generally a very effective punisher when it is used for immediately stopping a behaviour. b. There is no evidence that spanking can lead to poor mental health. c. Corporal punishment teaches appropriate behaviours. d. Corporal punishment is best if administered.
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6) Although they seem vivid and highly accurate, ________ memories of emotional events are no more accurate than other memories. 7) Herrmann Ebbinghaus is famous for creating a ________, which graphically displayed the results of his memory experiments. 8) Using the mnemonic known as ________, you could remember the order of the.
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1) The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour is known as __________. a. learning b. intelligence formation c. imprinting d. cognition 2) Learning is a process by which experience results in __________. a. acquisition of motivation b. relatively permanent behaviour change c. amplification of sensory stimuli d. delayed.
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46) Proactive interference of long-term memory means ___________ . a. new material interferes with memory of old material b. new material has suppressed short-term memories c. old material interferes with memory of new material d. old material has eliminated memories of new material 47) Retroactive interference of long-term memory means __________. a. new material interferes with.
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36) When asked to recall single-digit numbers presented in various digit span sizes, the typical adult would probably start to encounter difficulty once they got past ________ digits. a. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. 7 37) The system of memory that can hold approximately 7 “chunks” of information is called a. long-term memory. b. permastore memory. c..
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1) Memory is a. a capacity for learning. b. a system that allows people to retain information over time. c. an ability of humans only. d. unchangeable. 2) A system that allows people to retain information over time is called a. memory. b. cognition. c. computer. d. intelligence. 3) Memory is classically defined as a. a capacity for learning. b. the ability.
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96) Julie is expected to cut the lawn weekly. Her parents only give her money once in a while after she cuts the lawn. Julie is being reinforced using a _____________ schedule of reinforcement. a. continuous b. partial c. classical d. secondary 97) What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $10.
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16) Which of the following illustrates an unconditioned stimulus (US)? a. blinking when air is blown into your eye b. blinking when you hear your favourite song c. your favourite song d. a puff of air to your eye 17) A research participant hears a tone followed by a puff of air directed toward his.
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6) A key difference between operant and classical conditioning is that in classical conditioning a response is not required for a reward (or unconditioned stimulus) to be presented. a. True b. False 7) Having a gold star placed on one's spelling quiz would be a secondary reinforcer. a. True b. False 8) In order for latent.
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16) The capacity of short term memory is _______ items. a. unlimited b. 7 +/– 2 c. 12 d. 22 17) What is the capacity of short-term memory? a. five, plus or minus two letters b. seven, plus or minus two chunks c. five, plus or minus two engrams d. seven, plus or minus two numbers 18) What is the.
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6) Encoding is a. recalling information. b. recognizing information. c. representing information. d. remembering information. 7) The process of getting information out of memory is known as a. retention. b. retrieval. c. reconstruction. d. reliable. 8) Sensory memory a. holds information for as long as you rehearse it. b. holds information for about 30 seconds. c. holds information for about 5 seconds. d. processes.
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66) On a TV game show, Jeannette is asked to name the provincial capital of Manitoba. This information is most likely stored in a. procedural memory. b. semantic memory. c. episodic memory. d. nondeclarative memory. 67) The type of memory that is most like an encyclopedia or a dictionary is a. emotional memory. b. episodic memory. c. procedural.
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6) By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the presentation of the meat was the: a. unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned response. c. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response. 7) An experiment.
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56) Flashbulb memories _______. a. are not subject to periodic revision b. concern events that are highly significant c. are almost always highly accurate d. include a memory's main subject, but not the background events 57) Flashbulb memories ______________. a. are not subject to periodic revision b. usually concern events that are emotionally charged c. are almost always.
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36) Scott remembers all of the details of his wedding seven years ago. This information is most likely stored in _______ memory. a. iconic b. episodic c. semantic d. short-term 37) Semantic memory is organized __________. a. in chunks b. sequentially and chronologically c. hierarchically d. chronologically 38) Which of the following is an example of semantic memory? a. events b. concepts c..
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120) According to your textbook, which of the following is true about animals teaching other members of their species? a. Researchers have observed members of several different species transmitting new behaviours to others through imitation. b. Humans are the only species known to transmit information through demonstration and imitation. c. Several animals can.
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56) Because classical conditioning can occur without a person's knowledge, it can be considered one type of ____________ memory. a. procedural b. semantic c. declarative d. nondeclarative 57) Which of the following would be a nondeclarative memory? a. your father's first name b. how to pitch a curveball c. the time you broke your leg d. how it felt.
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1) An unconditioned stimulus is an event or a thing that elicits a response automatically or reflexively. a. True b. False 2) Extinction is the result of forgetting. a. True b. False 3) Shaleigh developed a conditioned taste aversion to spearmint gum by chewing it when she had the stomach flu. Later she realized that the.
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81) Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement? a. giving children candy for completing their homework b. removing a child's chores when he or she completes homework c. ending class 10 minutes early if students work hard during class d. taking away privileges if a child does not follow classroom rules 82).
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31) Steve was recalling his first day in university, including walking into the wrong class, dropping his books as he left, and the long line at the registrar's office he encountered when he had to switch classes. These memories are examples of a. semantic memory. b. implicit memory. c. procedural memory. d. episodic memory. 32).
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11) You looked up a friend's address for a letter you wrote. Suddenly the phone rings—wrong number. Even though you were interrupted for only a few seconds, you've forgotten the address. Which memory system failed you? a. permanent memory b. long-term memory c. sensory register d. short-term memory 12) The hippocampus is instrumental in a. the.
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26) Which of the following would be the best example of culture affecting categorization? a. A five-year-old child calls a dolphin a "fish." b. A Japanese man takes off his shoes before entering a house. c. A woman from a traditional hunter-gather society categorizes plants as edible, inedible, or medicinal, instead of as.
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46) If research participants are not allowed to rehearse the information, about how long can they keep a meaningless trigram in phonological memory? a. 2 seconds b. 15 seconds c. 1 minute d. 20 minutes 47) In the Brown-Peterson test, subjects read a trigram (an unpronounceable series of three letters), and are then asked to.
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6) Elaborative rehearsal is defined as the rote repetition of material in order to prolong exposure. a. True b. False 7) Flashbulb memories, unlike other memories, are accurate records of the past. a. True b. False 8) An effective way to conceptualize memory is to think of it as a movie camera that records each moment.
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3) Many people think of memory as an accurate "recording" of past events. However, researchers have been able to demonstrate that it is fairly easy to make subjects misremember events, or even remember events that did not occur. Explain three different techniques that researchers have used to create these false.
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21) The average memory span consists of _______ items. a. five b. six c. seven d. nine 22) Information is grouped for storage in short-term memory through the process of __________. a. rote rehearsal b. cueing c. chunking d. categorizing 23) Chunking is a means of _______________. a. immediately forgetting irrelevant details b. organizing information into meaningful units c. arranging details into a.
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1) The ________ model of short-term memory proposes an active system of memory stores and a central executive, which together allow us to manage complex tasks. 2) One type of declarative memory is called ________ memory. These memories involve facts, but do not revolve around specific events or personal experiences. 3) If.
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26) Which type of memory is concerned with remembering the day your parents bought you a car? a. implicit memory b. semantic memory c. episodic memory d. procedural memory 27) The Canadian Psychology Group has invited teams from all the universities across Canada to compete in a Psych Bowl. The teams will answer questions such.
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66) What is the approximate duration of an iconic memory? a. half a second b. 5-10 seconds c. 20 seconds d. longer than 20 seconds 67) When Dana asked Rachel what she had for dinner last night, Rachel said that she couldn’t remember because her short-term memory was poor. How should Dana respond to Rachel? a..
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86) Presenting a stimulus to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as a. positive punishment. b. negative punishment. c. negative reinforcement. d. vicarious punishment. 87) Which of the following will decrease the likelihood of behaviour reoccurring? a. negative punishment b. negative reinforcement c. positive reinforcement d. fixed-ratio reinforcement 88) When a stimulus.
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71) Which type of memory allows individuals to perform tasks automatically, such as driving, typing, or riding a bike? a. declarative memory b. non-declarative memory c. episodic memory d. semantic memory 72) Non-declarative memory is to ______________ as declarative memory is to _______________. a. procedural memory; priming b. priming; semantic memory c. episodic memory; procedural memory d. semantic memory;.
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1) A _____________ is the mental representation of an object, event, or idea. a. mental set b. concept c. algorithm d. prototype 2) A group of interrelated concepts is a called a ____________. a. category b. superconcept c. mental set d. prototype 3) The concepts of dog, cat, and goldfish can be grouped together to form a _____________ called pets. a..
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