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Study Resources (Anatomy And Physiology)

Essay and other Multiple-mark Questions 1)  Describe the physiological and behavioral changes that occur during a typical night's sleep. Be sure to describe their typical time course. 2)  Describe the physiological correlates of dreaming. What has the study of these correlates taught us about dreaming? Describe two key studies as part.
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121)  The melatonin taken orally as medication is A) synthesized from dopamine. B) exogenous. C) endogenous. D) both A and B E) both A and C 122)  In view of the evidence, the widespread practice of taking melatonin to promote sleep is A) dangerous and should be stopped. B) definitely.
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101)  The animal model that best approximates human drug addiction is the A) conditioned tolerance model. B) contingent tolerance model. C) drug self-administration paradigm. D) drug withdrawal syndrome E) conditioned place preference paradigm. 102)  In the conditioned place-preference paradigm, rats usually prefer the A) control compartment. B) lever that they.
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61)  The external reproductive organs of males and females develop A) from different tissue. B) from the same bipotential tissue. C) under environmental control. D) under direct genetic control. E) under estrogenic control. 62)  The male and female external reproductive organs develop from the A) Wolffian system. B) Müllerian system..
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Globally, more than 1 billion people are addicted to _____________ , and more than 76 million are addicted to _____________ . A) heroin; marijuana B) nicotine: alcohol C) heroin; cocaine D) heroin; prescription drugs E) marijuana; heroin 2)  Most laws governing drug abuse were enacted A) in the early.
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21)  The severity of withdrawal symptoms depends upon the A) particular drug in question. B) dose of the preceding drug exposure. C) duration of the preceding drug exposure. D) speed with which the drug is cleared from the body. E) all of the above 22)  Individuals who experience drug withdrawal.
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11)  Many chemicals are kept from passing from the circulatory system of the CNS into CNS neurons by A) reflexology. B) the blood-brain barrier. C) tolerance. D) the cerebrospinal fluid. E) withdrawal. 12)  The conversion of drugs in the body to nonactive chemicals, often by liver enzymes, is referred to as.
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91)  The entrainment of circadian rhythms by visual zeitgebers is mediated by A) part of the optic nerve. B) the retinohypothalamic tract. C) a rare type of retinal ganglion cell. D) all of the above E) both A and C 92)  The diurnal light-dark cycle entrains the sleep-wake cycle via.
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11)  The __________ theory of REM sleep suggests that REM sleep and wakefulness serve similar functions. 12)  __________ circadian cycles are those without zeitgebers. 13)  The major internal circadian clock is located in the __________ nuclei. 14)  Specialized __________ cells function as receptors for gradual changes in illumination. These receptors.
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121)  Modern theories of drug addiction suggest that addicts relapse after lengthy drug-free periods because of the effects of A) stress. B) drug priming. C) exposure to cues related to drug effects by Pavlovian conditioning. D) all of the above E) none of the above 122) The ability of drug-related cues.
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111) According to the incentive-sensitization theory of drug addiction, as an addict habitually consumes  the drug, the A) positive-incentive value of taking the drug increases. B)  hedonic value of taking the drug increases. C)  positive-incentive value of taking the drug decreases. D) both A and B E)  both B and C 112) According to the.
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41)  Releasing hormones are synthesized in the A) amygdala. B) hypothalamus. C) hippocampus. D) pituitary. E) gonads. 42)  Releasing hormones are released into the A) gonads. B) posterior pituitary. C) hypothalamopituitary portal system. D) ventricles. E) adrenal cortex. 43)  Releasing hormones control the release of A) estrogens. B) androgens. C).
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141)  Our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of narcolepsy is largely attributable to the study of A) Canadian hockey players. B) Canadian neuroscientists. C) Spanish physiologists. D) mutant rats. E) a strain of dogs. 142)  Narcoleptic patients have brains with reduced levels of A) serotonin. B) orexin. C) dopamine. D).
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  __________ waves are the 8-to-12-Hz EEG waves that are often associated with relaxed wakefulness. 2)  Normally, the fifth stage of sleep EEG to be reached after a person falls asleep at night is stage __________. 3)  Stage 4 sleep EEG is characterized by a predominance of __________ waves..
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  Sweat glands are __________ glands. 2)  __________ glands are ductless glands, which release hormones into the circulatory system. 3)  Egg and sperm cells combine to form a cell called a __________. 4)  __________ hormones are short chains of amino acids. 5)  __________ hormones can readily penetrate cell membranes.
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21)  During REM sleep, changes in autonomic nervous system activity suggest A) arousal. B) unresponsiveness. C) increased relaxation. D) neural inactivity. E) both B and C 22)  The association of REM sleep and dreaming was discovered in the early 1950s in the laboratory of A) Siegel. B) Kleitman. C) Mistlberger..
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81)  Genetic males with androgenic insensitivity syndrome have A) little public hair. B) shallow vaginas. C) internalized testes. D) breasts. E) all of the above 82)  Which of the following is not a true statement about genetic males with androgenic insensitivity syndrome? A) They have testes. B) They have ovaries..
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31)  Theories postulating that sleep permits the body to recover from internal deficits produced by wakefulness are often referred to as A) adaptation theories. B) recuperation theories. C) free-running theories. D) circadian theories. E) diurnal theories. 32)  Circadian means A) happening twice in one day. B) lasting about 1 day..
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51)  The performance of which of the following tasks is most likely to be disrupted by sleep deprivation? A) sprinting B) weight lifting C) watching a radar screen for occasional unpredictable blips D) solving a series of complex geometric problems E) solving a series of complex mathematical problems 52)  It.
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81)  Dr. William Stewart Halsted, a brilliant surgeon and one of the founders of Johns Hopkins Medical School, is considered by many to be the father of modern surgery. Surprisingly, he was addicted to __________ throughout most of his brilliant career. A) alcohol B) cocaine C) heroin D) morphine E).
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111)  After several nights of REM-sleep deprivation, penile erections often A) do not occur during sleep. B) become difficult to achieve during wakefulness. C) begin to occur during SWS. D) make it difficult to get back to sleep. E) become embarrassing. 112)  There are three classes of drugs that influence sleep:.
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101)  In laboratory experiments, ovariectomized female rats are often rendered receptive by injections of A) testosterone and estradiol. B) estradiol and progesterone. C) progesterone and testosterone. D) estradiol and estrogen. E) testosterone and androgen. 102)  Castrating sexually mature female rats A) decreases their receptivity over the ensuing months. B) decreases.
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101)  Studies of __________ provided early evidence that the anterior hypothalamus is involved in sleep. A) insomnia B) narcolepsy C) encephalitis lethargica D) catalepsy E) multiple sclerosis 102)  The cortical EEG of cerveau isolé cats is indicative of A) almost continuous SWS. B) almost continuous REM sleep. C) alternating periods.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Explain how the neuroendocrine system regulates the release of hormones from the gonads. Illustrate with a diagram of the regulatory model. 2)  Describe the sexual differentiation of the gonads, internal reproductive, and external reproductive organs. Compare and contrast the mechanisms. 3)  Describe and discuss sexual.
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131)  Paradoxically, people suffering from sleep apnea are often diagnosed as suffering from either insomnia or A) restless legs. B) nocturnal myoclonus. C) hypersomnia. D) all of the above E) either A or B 132)  A condition in which a person's sleep is repeatedly disrupted by the inability to breath.
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91)  Many early studies of intracranial self-stimulation focused on the stimulation of the A) lateral hypothalamus or septum. B) cortex. C) amygdala. D) hippocampus. E) striatum or substantia nigra. 92)  Studies of electrical intracranial self-stimulation have influenced the development of biopsychological theories of addiction by indicating that A) the rewarding.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  Drug tolerance can be defined as a shift in the dose-response curve to the __________. 2)  A state of increased sensitivity to a drug as a result of previous exposure to it is called drug __________. 3)  The before-and-after design is used to study __________ drug tolerance. 4) .
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11)  The __________ of the primordial gonads develop into testes. 12)  The specific term for surgical removal of the testes is __________. 13)  The growth of human axillary hair at puberty is stimulated by the hormone __________. 14)  In some species, testosterone is thought to be converted to estradiol, which.
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51)  Evidence indicates that one serious health hazard of marijuana is A) brain damage. B) permanent memory loss. C) bradycardia. D) cancer. E) heart attack in people who have previously suffered heart attacks. 52) Although causal effects have not yet been proven, the well-established correlation between heavy marijuana use and.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  The case of Miss M. is interesting because A) although she slept little, she appeared to be healthy, productive, and well adjusted. B) her lack of sleep had rendered her neurotic. C) she had, with considerable effort, trained herself not to sleep. D) her lack of sleep.
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31)  According to Ramsay and Woods, the unconditional stimulus in drug conditioning experiments is A) the drug. B) what the experimenter measures. C) the disruption of neural functioning that is directly produced by the drug. D) the compensatory reactions to the conditional stimulus. E) the test environment. 32)  Tobacco is.
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111)  With respect to human sexual behavior, the _________ is thought to control the most complex aspects. A) hippocampus B) cortex C) hypothalamus D) limbic system E) amygdala 112)  The __________ are found in the preoptic area, and they are larger in male rats than in female rats. A) lateral geniculate nuclei.
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81)  The fact that most people sleep almost exactly the same amount each day under free-running conditions, despite large day-to-day variations in physical and mental activity provides strong support for the dominance of A) recuperative factors in the regulation of sleep. B) circadian factors in the regulation of sleep. C).
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121)  Which of the following groups of adult males has substantially higher levels of circulating testosterone than the others? A) heterosexuals B) homosexuals C) bisexuals D) transsexuals 122)  If a homosexual male were gonadectomized and then given extremely large replacement injections of testosterone, his primary sexual orientation would be A).
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21)  Which of the following is released by the adrenal cortex? A) testosterone B) estradiol C) progesterone D) all of the above E) both B and C 22)  A tropic hormone is any hormone that A) increases reproductive behavior. B) stimulates or suppresses the release of posterior pituitary hormones. C).
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31)  Unlike the posterior pituitary, the anterior pituitary A) receives no neural input. B) has no blood vessels. C) releases hormones. D) releases no hormones. E) is suspended from the pituitary stalk. 32)  The master gland has its own master; where is it? A) pituitary B) hypothalamus C) anterior pituitary.
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71)  These drugs are widely used in the treatment of pain, cough, and diarrhea: A) anxiolytics. B) stimulants. C) opiates. D) depressants. E) antidepressants. 72)  In 1644, the Emperor of China banned tobacco smoking. This law contributed to an increase in __________ addiction. A) nicotine B) opium C) cocaine D).
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71)  Which of the following statements describes our current understanding of differences in the structure of human female and human male brains? A) Male and female brains are identical. B) Some suggestions of differences have been reported, but none of the differences has proven to be replicable. C) Many structural.
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11)  __________ is an opiate that is often prescribed for the treatment of heroin and morphine addiction. 12)  Rats will press a lever to administer electrical brain stimulation to sites in their own brains. This phenomenon is called intracranial __________. 13)  The best animal model of human drug addiction is.
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71)  Slow-wave sleep seems to play a particularly important A) recuperative role. B) psychological role. C) circadian role. D) physiological role. E) mnemonic role. 72)  Volunteers regain little of their lost sleep after a period of sleep deprivation, but they regain much of their lost A) stage 4 sleep. B).
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5)  Discuss the case of David Reimer, the twin who lost his penis. How was his condition treated? Was the treatment effective? What can we learn from this case--describe two major points? 6)  Summarize the role of four brain structures in mammalian sexual behavior, emphasizing the evidence. 7)  Discuss variations.
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151)  Research has shown that naps have recuperative powers out of proportion with their A) power. B) frequency. C) brevity. D) positive incentive value. E) EEG. 152)  Interest in the efficiency of polyphasic sleep was stimulated by stories of A) Leonardo da Vinci. B) Michelangelo. C) Titian. D) Hebb. E).
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