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PRE-LAB WORKSHEETS 1. Match the terms and descriptors that follow. _____ Transmits impulses toward cell bodyA. Neurons _____ Nerve cellB. Cell body _____ Integrates signals from sensory neuronsC. Myelin _____ Conductor of impulses from the cell bodyD. Node of Ranvier _____ Has cell body in dorsal root ganglionE. Axon _____ Group of myelinated nerve fibers within central .
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2. Muscles have origins and insertions. Which is generally proximal? __________ 3. A. The sternocleidomastoid muscle typically flexes the head and neck. The mastoid process (on the head) is the and closing insertion, and the sternum and clavicle are the origin. Is the origin moving toward the insertion, or is the.
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5. Enter the letter by the structures in Figure 5-1, next to the correct label for that structure. You can also write the names of the structures on the figure. __________ Bipennate __________ Multipennate __________ Strap __________ Fusiform __________ Unipennate __________ Triangular 6. Using the terms listed in question 5, name the type.
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PRE-LAB WORKSHEETS 1. Match the terms that follow with their definitions. __________ Muscle contraction without joint movementA. Reversal of muscle action __________ Distance between maximum contracted and extended lengthB. Normal resting length __________ The origin of the contracting muscle moves toward the insertion__________ Tone __________ Constant speed with variable resistanceD. Tenodesis __________ Not as effective as.
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5. Perform shoulder flexion, first while maintaining medial rotation and then with lateral rotation. Compare the amount of range of motion achieved with each movement. A. Which movement has greater ROM? ________ Medial rotation ___________ Lateral rotation B. This is an example of what type of arthrokinematics motion? ___________ 6. Sitting and facing your.
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POST-LAB QUESTIONS 1. Underline the correct response in the parentheses. Peripheral nerves have both efferent and afferent fibers. Efferent information originates in the (_____/periphery) and is about (sensory/_____) function. Afferent information originates in the (spinal cord/_____) and is about (_____/motor) function. 2. On the table that follows, indicate if the structures are.
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10. Move from a sitting to a standing position: A. The lower extremities are moving in _____ an open kinetic chain. __________ a closed kinetic chain. B. Which hip and knee muscle groups are the agonists? __________ Extensors _____ Flexors C. The agonists are performing what type of contractions? _____ Isometric __________ Concentric _____ Eccentric _____ None 11. From.
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4. Perform the motions that follow on several people. Describe the end feel of each motion. Was the end feel for the same joint the same on all of your classmates?   Motion End Feel Elbow flexion ___________ Elbow extension ___________ Wrist flexion ___________ Knee extension ___________ Hip flexion with knee flexion ___________ Hip flexion with knee extended ___________       .
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7. Match the muscle characteristic with the correct description. Use each term only once. __________ Ability to be stretched beyond A. Irritability normal resting length __________ Ability to receive and respond B. Contractility to a stimulus __________ Ability to produce tension C. Extensibility __________ Ability to return to normal length D. Elasticity 8. A muscle.
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11. The descending aorta branches at L4 to become the right and left _________ arteries. In turn, these arteries branch at approximately S1 into the _________and _________ arteries. The _________ artery supplies the lower extremity. As this artery passes under the inguinal ligament, it becomes the _________ artery. It runs.
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8. Label the drawing of a vertebra using the terms that follow (Fig. 6-1). _____ Vertebral foramen _____ Body _____ Neural arch 9. Label the cross-sectional drawing of the spinal cord using the terms that follow (Fig. 6-2). _____ Anterior horn _____ Gray matter _____ Peripheral nerve _____ Posterior column _____ Posterior horn _____ Posterior.
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10. Match the type of force with its definition. ___________ Joint surfaces are pulled apart A. Traction, distraction, or tension force ___________ Joint surfaces move parallel and in opposite B. Approximation, compression force directions of each other ___________ Joint surfaces are pushed closer together C. Shear force 11. When bending the trunk to the.
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4. What is the relationship between muscle fiber arrangement and the force a muscle can produce? __________ 5. When a muscle lacks irritability, it will lack the ability to: __________. 6. When the lower extremity is held at the end of the range of SLR, the hamstrings muscles have been __________. When the lo.
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6. Perform the activities that follow on your partner. A. With your partner sitting over the side of a treatment table with her or his knee at about 90 degrees of flexion, resist your partner’s isometric knee flexion. Note how strong the knee flexors are in this position. B. Have your partner.
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13. Complete the statements that follow using the terms listed below. AgonistAntagonistCocontraction NeutralizerStabilizersSynergists A. The shoulder girdle muscles act as __________ when one lifts a book off the table. B. When a muscle acts to eliminate undesired motions during an activity, it is functioning as a(n) __________. C. Contracting the quadriceps and hamstring muscles simultaneously.
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5. For the major nerves that supply the upper extremity, identify the associated spinal level(s). NerveSpinal Level Axillary_____ Musculocutaneous _____ Radial _____ Median _____Ulnar _____ 6. Match the major nerves that supply the lower extremity with the associated spinal level. _____ Femoral A. L4–S3 _____ Sciatic B. L2–L4     .
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LAB ACTIVITIES 3. Place stockinets on your arm and leg, then draw on the stockinet the path of the peripheral nerves and the sensory distribution of the peripheral nerves. Use the stockinets as study guides for reviewing peripheral  nerves and their sensory distribution. Alternatively, use a washable marker or skin pencil.
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4. Match the muscle with the characteristic associated with its name.   Location Shape Action Number of Heads Attachments Direction of Fibers Muscle Size Rhomboids   _____           Abductor digiti minimi _____   _____         Biceps brachii _____     _____       Quadriceps femoris _____     _____       Pectoralis major _____           _____ Gluteus medius _____             Sternocleidomastoid         _____           .
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LAB ACTIVITIES 1. Passively extend your partner’s elbow. When you reach the end of the range, the humerus and ulna come together, locking the elbow in place. The term used to describe this end feel is ___________. 2. Have your partner lie supine. Passively flex his or her hip. When you reach.
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14. An upper motor neuron synapses in the anterior horn cell and is considered part of a peripheral nerve. _____ True _____ False 15. Match the cranial nerve name with the cranial nerve number. _____ FacialA. XI _____ Spinal accessoryB. V _____ TrigeminalC. VII 16. Indicate whether the spinal nerves that follow exit above or below.
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5. Perform the activities that follow on your partner. A. With your partner in a supine position, perform simultaneous hip and knee flexion. Note the amount of knee flexion obtained when the hip is flexed. B. Have your partner assume a prone position. Align the thigh in anatomical position. Slowly flex the.
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LAB ACTIVITIES 1. Using a skeleton, locate the attachments of the muscles listed below. Palpate on your partner the origins and insertions of the muscles listed below. Indicate which, origin or insertion, is located proximally and which is located distally. Remember that the proximal attachment is also usually the more stable.
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7. Match each of the impairments that follow with the nerve injury that may cause it. _____ Scapular winging A. Ulnar nerve _____ Wrist drop B. Long thoracic nerve _____ Ape hand C. Median nerve _____ Claw hand D. Radial nerve 8. Name the two nerves into which the sciatic nerve divides. __________________________ 9. When an adult.
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14. List the four main functions of the lymphatics. _________ 15. The sacs that are located along the paths of lymph vessels are _________. These sacs contain _________ that help to digest the contents of the lymph. An important means of moving lymph is contraction of the smooth muscle of the _________     .
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9. A muscle that cannot be lengthened simultaneously over all the joints it crosses is said to be actively/__________ insufficient. Underline the correct answer. 10. Stretching a multijoint muscle is achieved by positioning the joints to cause the muscle to be in its: _____ shortened position. _____resting position. __________ lengthened position over all joints.
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8. Apply the concave-convex rule to identify the type of joint surface (concave/convex) moving in each of the statements that follow. Underline the correct term. A. Which joint surface (concave or convex) moves in the opposite direction as the moving body segment? ___________ B. Which joint surface (concave or convex) moves in.
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12. Identify the type of muscle contraction described below as eccentric (E) or concentric (C). __________ Lengthening contraction __________ Shortening contraction __________ Insertion moves toward origin __________ Insertion moves away from origin __________ Isotonic contraction __________ Muscle contraction moves the body segment against gravity __________ Muscle contraction slows the pull of gravity on the body segment     .
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4. Identify the dermatome area for C5–6. _____8. Describe and assume the postures resulting from the nerve injuries that follow. Identify the nerve involved. Posture Description Nerve Erb’s palsy__________ Scapular winging__________ Wrist drop__________ Ape hand__________ Pope’s blessing__________ Claw hand__________ Drop foot__________     .
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Complete the following sections prior to lab class. 1. The arteries of the pulmonary circuit transport _________ blood, and the arteries of the systemic circuit transport _________ blood. 2. The pulmonary circuit consists of what structures? _________The systemic system consists of what structures? _________   .
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5. Match each of the structures that follow with its major function. _____ ThalamusA. Hormone function and behavior _____ HypothalamusB. Body sensations—where pain is perceived _____ Basal gangliaC. Automatic control of respiration _____ MidbrainD. Coordination of motor movement _____ Medulla oblongataE. Control of muscle coordination, tone, posture _____ CerebellumF. Center for visual reflexes     .
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10. The conus medullaris is located at approximately the level of the _____ lumbar vertebra. 11. The cauda equina is made up of the nerve roots for what spinal levels? _____ 12. The filum terminale is at which end of the spinal cord? _____ Proximal _____ Distal 13. The corticospinal tract is the.
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6. A. The subarachnoid space is located between which spinal cord coverings? _____ and _____ B. What circulates through the subarachnoid space? _____ C. What is its function? _____ 7. Match the spinal cord elements that follow with their descriptions. _____ Contains neuronal cell bodies and synapsesA. Conus medullaris _____ End of spinal cordB. Cauda equina _____.
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LAB ACTIVITIES 6. Blood circulation is partially responsible for maintaining body temperature. Using the back of your hand, palpate your partner from the dorsum of his or her foot to the proximal anterior thigh. Can you detect any difference in temperature of the skin in these two areas? Explain why a.
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POST-LAB QUESTIONS 2. What happens when the valves of the veins of the lower extremity do not close completely? _________. 3. Organize the arteries in order from distal to proximal in the list that follows: Posterior tibialPoplitealDorsalis pedis FemoralAnterior tibial _________ 4. The first branch of the subclavian artery is the _________     .
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POST-LAB QUESTIONS 1. A. When the agonist is contracting to overcome the resistance of gravity, the body part is moving in the same/__________ direction from the force of gravity. Underline the correct answer. B. In the example described in A, the agonist is contracting: __________ concentrically. _____ eccentrically. _____ isometrically. 2. A. When the agonist.
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3. Match the movements with the peripheral nerve that innervates the muscle(s) responsible for the motions that follow. _____ Forearm pronation A. Ulnar _____ Shoulder abduction B. Radial _____ Elbow extension C. Musculocutaneous _____ Wrist ulnar deviation D. Axillary _____ Elbow flexion E. Median 4. Match the movements with the peripheral nerve that innervates the muscle(s).
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17. The spinal nerve divides into the posterior (dorsal) ramus and the anterior (ventral) ramus. What is the function of each ramus? Posterior (dorsal) ramus: _____ Anterior (ventral) ramus: _____ 18. List the major muscle groups innervated by each of the spinal segments that follow. A. C1–C3: _____ B. C5–C6: _____ C. C6–T1: _____ D. T2–T12: _____ E..
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5. Which arteries are typically palpated when determining heart rate? _________. 6. Blood pressure is recorded as the _________ pressure over the _________ pressure. 7. The systolic pressure represents the pressure when the heart is: _________ contracting. _____ at rest.     .
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7. When your partner performs the maximum knee flexion possible in the prone position, how do you determine if she or he is experiencing active insufficiency of the knee flexors or passive insufficiency of the knee extensors? __________8. As a general rule, the statements that follow describe muscle contractions in.
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