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36) The notion that ”mental patients are dangerous” is an example of a(n) a. self-fulfilling prophecy. b. confirmation bias. c. attitude. d. stereotype. 37) Which of the following is a negative, often aggressive behaviour aimed at the target of prejudice? a. stereotypes b. bias c. discrimination d. reactance 38) According to research, prejudice is reduced when people must a. come into.
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11) What did Freud call the part of the personality that begins to develop in early childhood? a. id b. ego c. authentic self d. superego 12) ”I didn't get the job, even though I was the most qualified applicant, because the company has to hire a minority worker.” This statement probably illustrates which defence.
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51) Colin and Erin are waiting to meet with their caterer so that they can discuss the menu for their wedding. The caterer is thirty minutes late and still hasn’t arrived. Colin suggests the caterer is probably delayed because of traffic. Colin’s attribution can be characterized as a a. personal attribution. b..
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1) One of the Big Five personality factors, emotional stability, is also referred to by the opposite quality ________. 2) The idea that personality is the product of interactions between behaviour, the environment, and personal factors is known as ________, and is a key component to the social-cognitive approach to personality. 3).
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26) What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching? a. social loafing b. social idleness c. social facilitation d. social productivity 27) Marco has been running each afternoon trying to beat his college's record for the 400-metre sprint. Despite all his practising, he hasn't been able.
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6. Research into animal personalities suggests that a. unlike human personality traits, animal personality traits have no genetic basis. b. humans are the only animals who have true emotions. c. the Big Five personality traits can be observed only in primates. d. the Big Five personality traits occur in many different types of animals. 7..
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101) Which psychodynamic theorist introduced the concept of the inferiority complex into discussions of psychological adjustment? a. Adler b. Fromm c. Horney d. Jung 102) Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the __________. a. collective b. analytical c. heroic d. preconscious 103) Jung's theory suggests that the __________ is a collection of.
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11) When individuals find themselves in new situations where they are uncertain of how to behave, they often copy the behaviours of others, a strategy known as a. mimicry. b. obedience. c. groupthink. d. parodying. 12) Wilhelm doesn't follow sports, but he agrees to go to a football game with a friend. Because he is.
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56) According to Eysenck, the reason why some people seek out exciting new social and emotional experiences is that they a. require relatively high levels of stimulation to activate certain brain regions. b. have low baseline adrenaline levels. c. require relatively low levels of stimulation to activate certain brain regions. d. have high baseline.
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61) Which aspect of the mind held the greatest fascination for Freud? a. the preconscious mind b. the conscious area c. suppressions d. the unconscious 62) Which of the following is NOT a key assumption shared by psychodynamic theories? a. Mental representations of the self and others shape how the individual acts. b. When basic needs for.
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36) Before Stanley Milgram conducted his study on obedience, he asked a number of psychiatrists and psychologists how many people would go all the way to the highest voltage under the instructions of the authority. Milgram found that a. The experts accurately predicted that about 45 percent of the participants would.
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46) In 1986, the space shuttle Challenger was launched despite warnings of danger from NASA engineers that parts might malfunction due to weather conditions. Which concept best characterizes the decision to go ahead with the launch? a. conformity b. groupthink c. obedience d. group polarization 47) What did Milgram discover through his classic studies on.
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51) Blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile were collectively known as the four ____________. a. mood fluids b. humors c. secretions d. life forces 52) Of the following, which is the oldest theory of personality? a. phrenology b. behaviourism c. the psychodynamic approach d. humorism 53) Which test or technique would a phrenologist use to access an individual's personality? a..
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41) Identical twins reared apart will often have a. no more in common than same sex fraternal twins reared apart. b. dissimilar personalities. c. similar personalities. d. no more in common than nontwins. 42) According to your textbook, one possible way genes might influence personality is by affecting ______________. a. cellular division b. life expectancy c. brain chemicals d..
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11) The _______________ dimension of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) describes the extent to which people are outgoing or shy. a. agreeableness b. extraversion c. neuroticism d. openness 12) Walter prefers to stay home on a Friday night and read a good book to hanging out with other people. In fact, he tends to be.
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16) The part of personality, according to Freud, that seeks to avoid pain is the ________. a. id b. ego c. superego d. ego-ideal 17) Which statement about the id is most accurate? a. It is in close contact with bodily needs. b. It follows the reality principle. c. It houses the conscience. d. It drives us to live.
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16) Marques loves to go to parties. While there, he can have a conversation with just about anyone, whether he knows them or not. Which of the following Five Factors would Marques probably rate highly on based on this information? a. neuroticism b. conscientiousness c. extraversion d. openness 17) Which of these is an acronym.
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6) While __________ are general rules that apply to members of a group, ___________ are guidelines that apply to specific positions within the group. a. conformity rules; obedience rules b. obedience rules; conformity rules c. social roles; social norms d. social norms; social roles 7) In the Stanford Prison Study, male college students agreed to.
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21) Identifying with one's opposite-sex parent occurs in which psychosexual stage? a. oral b. anal c. phallic d. genital 22) According to Freud, an inadequate resolution of the Oedipus complex leads to a. child molestation. b. a high regard for women. c. a personality that is reckless and self-assured. d. love of nature. 23) Freud developed his theory of personality.
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96) Which psychological test asks the subject to tell a story based on a picture of one or more people in which it is unclear what is going on? a. Rorschach test b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) c. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) d. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 97) According to the authors, the key.
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36) The stage of personality development which lasts from about age 6 until puberty is known as the _______ stage. a. phallic b. anal c. genital d. latency 37) Which type of standardized test presents ambiguous stimuli? a. MMPI b. CPI c. Rorschach d. TAT 38) Collective personality characteristics are to ______________ as individual personality characteristics are to _______________. a. an.
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a. nomothetic b. factor-analysis c. idiographic d. reciprocal 2. Which of the following statements is true about personality traits over the life span? a. The first signs of personality do not appear until a child is approximately 2 years of age. b. Early temperament is not a useful predictor of adult personality. c. Young adults tend to.
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21) Nancy is a three month old infant. Compared to other infants her age, she is fussy and cries easily. Nancy's behaviours would most accurately be described as the result of her _____________. a. state b. neuroticism c. personality d. temperament 22) Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality? a. Temperament.
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41) People won't help when there are many bystanders due to a. of diffusion of responsibility. b. people are egoistic. c. people like to see others hurt. d. people are not altruistic. 42) According to research, the larger the group, the a. safer you are. b. more likely you are to receive help. c. more likely you are.
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26) Picasso's paintings often contained exaggerated sexual symbolism. This way of expressing a basic impulse in a socially praiseworthy fashion illustrates the use of _______. a. displacement b. sublimation c. projection d. reaction formation 27) Maria takes good notes in class. Whenever someone who has missed class due to illness asks her if he can.
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76) When anxiety-provoking memories are prevented from reaching conscious awareness, such as not remembering lying to a parent, it is called ____________. a. denial b. isolation c. repression d. reaction-formation 77) During a grade school field trip, Ryan and his friends were running down a hill when he stepped on a snake. He was unharmed.
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26) Which perspective on personality development is most concerned with how one's learning history influences one's future permanent, adult personality? a. behaviourist b. humanistic c. psychodynamic d. social-cognitive 27) Allana is generally an outgoing person. A ____________ psychologist would be most likely to suggest that Allana's personality is the result of being reinforced for outgoing.
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31) In the context of social psychology, the acronym WEIRD stands for a. Willful, Egocentric, Immature, Rigid, and Depressed b. Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic c. Witness, Engage, Interact, React, and Depart d. Willpower, Ego, Id, Repression, and Denial 32) A potential issue with the majority of the research on personality is that the.
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40) In addition to genetic factors, what other construct would a behaviourist include when explaining the causes of personality differences? a. biological factors b. cognitive factors c. environmental factors d. the collective unconscious 41) Humanistic psychology is to ______________ as Jungian psychology is to _____________. a. inferiority complex; unconscious drives b. locus of control; psychosexual stages c. defence.
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16) In general, when an individual mimics aspects of the behaviour of another, the imitator tends to be ___________by the imitated person. a. viewed unfavourably b. ignored c. viewed favourably d. asked to stop 17) Imitating the behaviour of one individual is called _____________, whereas changing your behaviour to fit in with a group is.
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1) The guidelines for how to behave in social contexts are called a. social cognitions. b. social roles. c. social norms. d. conformities. 2) Doni enters an elevator and stands in it facing the back instead of turning around to face the elevator door. Doni is violating a. her gender role. b. a social role. c. a social.
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46) Your textbook argues that personality differences between men and women may be due to ___________ factors. a. genetic b. hormonal c. political d. economic 47) Levi lives in a relatively wealthy country, where most people have access to health care and education. Which of the following is most likely true about personality gender differences.
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31) The superego is that part of the personality which represents the _______. a. pleasure principle b. reality principle c. thanatos d. conscience 32) An orally fixated person would most likely a. be an only child. b. dislike his or her father. c. be a sloppy dresser. d. eat and smoke a great deal. 33) The process of toilet training.
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106) What theorist strongly disagreed with Freud's ideas about women and their feelings of penis envy? a. Adler b. Horney c. Jung d. Rorschach 107) A key critique of Freud's theory of personality is that a. Freud was a medical doctor, not a psychologist. b. It presents human beings in an unrealistically positive light. c. Much of it.
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31) The fundamental attribution error is based on the a. confirmatory bias. b. need to believe that one can control one's fate. c. basic distrust that we have of other humans. d. need to accurately detect causes of behaviour. 32) Over-simplified generalizations about the characteristics of a group are called a. prejudices. b. stereotypes. c. biases. d. discrimination. 33) _______.
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36) A concern with personal goals and a self-focused orientation are most characteristic of those from ________ cultures. a. collectivistic b. individualistic c. narcissistic d. selfish 37) Joe works hard to avoid embarrassing himself or his family. Given what researchers have found about people from different cultures, he is most likely from _____________. a. Canada b. China c..
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81) A newborn baby is in what stage of psychosexual development? a. anal stage b. latency stage c. oral stage d. phallic stage 82) According to Freud, habits such as fingernail biting or gum chewing could result from a fixation in the __________ stage. a. oral b. anal c. genital d. phallic 83) A Freudian psychotherapist would assert that an.
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6) A central principle of the trait perspective to personality is that a. an individual's personality traits change from day to day. b. no two individuals share the same traits. c. individuals can be understood based on how well specific traits describe them. d. the idiographic approach is the only correct way to study.
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31) ________ can occur when individuals who are part of a group focus on preserving group solidarity at the expense of considering all possible alternatives or even failing to use rational thought in the process. a. Social facilitation b. Groupthink c. Social loafing d. Group polarization 32) A group of chemists, who have been working.
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86) Stewie has developed strong feelings for his mother and views his father as a rival for her attention. However, he is afraid that his father will find out and interfere with these plans. Stewie is clearly immersed in the __________ stage. a. anal b. genital c. oral d. phallic 87) The Oedipus complex is.
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