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Study Resources (Anatomy And Physiology)

21)  Chlorpromazine binds to dopamine receptors without activating them, and keeps dopamine from binding to them. Accordingly, chlorpromazine is classified as a A) receptor blocker. B) dopamine agonist. C) dopamine antagonist. D) both A and B E) both A and C 22)  Haloperidol is a potent A) neuroleptic. B) D2 receptor ligand. C) antischizophrenic drug. D) all of the above E).
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71)  The amygdala is thought to activate the appropriate sympathetic and behavioral responses to threat via the __________, respectively. A) auditory cortex and medial geniculate nucleus B) PAG and septum C) medial geniculate nucleus and auditory cortex D) thalamus and cortex E) hypothalamus and PAG 72)  Lesions to which structure.
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101)  According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, during speech, the output of Wernicke's area is transmitted to A) the angular gyrus. B) Broca's area. C) primary motor cortex. D) Heschl's gyrus. E) the planum temporale. 102)  According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, the neural output of the left frontal operculum goes to.
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91)  According to the text, watching a game of chess without knowing the rules would be like studying research on the A) lateralization of language without knowing the names of the commissures. B) lateralization of language without knowing about Sperry's Nobel-prize-winning experiments. C) cortical localization of language without knowing about.
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41)  The decision to treat "terminal" human epileptics with commissurotomy was made on the basis of previous comparative studies that had shown that A) epileptic discharges spread from one hemisphere to the other via the corpus callosum. B) commissurotomy has little disruptive effect on behavior outside contrived laboratory situations. C).
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  A disorder of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment by a psychiatrist is called a __________ disorder. A) neuropsychological B) psychiatric C) neurobehavioral D) neurochemical E) degenerative 2 )The main difficulty in diagnosing psychiatric disorders is that A) patients suffering from the same psychiatric disorder often display different symptoms. B) patients suffering from different.
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71)  When anxiety disrupts normal behavioral functioning, it is generally referred to as A) fear. B) hypertension C) an anxiety disorder. D) a panic disorder. E) a phobia. 72)  Which of the following symptoms is not commonly associated with anxiety disorders? A) tachycardia B) hypotension C) high blood pressure D) nausea E) breathing difficulties 73)  Most prevalent of all psychiatric disorders are.
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41)  Depressed patients who do not experience periods of mania are said to suffer from __________ affective disorders. A) bipolar B) reactive C) unipolar D) endogenous E) seasonal 42)  About what percentage of people suffer from clinical depression at some point in their lives? A) 1% B) 0.1% C) 10% D) 3% E) 23% 43)  The concordance rates for affective disorder are.
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  According to the __________ theory of emotion, the experience of emotion is produced by the brain's perception of the body's reaction to emotional stimuli. 2)  The pattern of behavior demonstrated by decorticate cats is known as __________ rage. 3)  The __________ system received its name because it rings.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  These are famous illustrations. Where were they originally published and what do they illustrate? Explain. 2)  This is the limbic system. Explain the meaning of “limbic.” Label each of the following 8 parts: septum, fornix, mammillary body, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, and olfactory bulb. 3) .
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11)  According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, the visual form of a read word is translated into a meaningful auditory code by the left __________. 13)  What proportion of patients with damage restricted to Broca's area display pure Broca's aphasia? Approximately __________%. 12)  The smallest units of sound that distinguish among.
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111)  Memory B cells A) facilitate long-term memory. B) facilitate short-term memory. C) enable antibody-mediated immune reactions to occur more quickly if a particular antigen is encountered a second time. D) are contained in macrophages. E) act by phagocytosis. 112)  Understanding of the bidirectional effects of stress on immune function.
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51)  Imipramine A) is a serotonin and norepinephrine antagonist. B) blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. C) blocks dopamine receptors. D) is a dopamine antagonist. E) both C and D 52)  Imipramine is a A) tricyclic antidepressant. B) MOA inhibitor. C) phenothiazine. D) butyrophenone. E) serotonin antagonist. 53)  Prozac A) is a SSRI. B) is no more effective in treating depression than imipramine. C).
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31)  LSD and the other classical hallucinogens produce behavioral effects A) by acting as serotonin agonists. B) by acting as serotonin antagonists. C) that mimic the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. D) both A and C E) both B and C 32) The dissociative anesthetics, such as ketamine, A) act as dopamine agonists. B) act as dopamine antagonists. C) produce.
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6)  Describe the various anxiety disorders and the drugs that are used in their treatment. What have these drugs suggested about the mechanisms of anxiety disorders? 40% for describing the anxiety disorders 40% for describing drugs that are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders 20% for speculations about the role of GABA.
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Discuss the relationships among tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, addiction, and physical dependence. 2)  Discuss contingent and conditioned drug tolerance. Explain the significance of these phenomena, and describe one experimental demonstration of each. 3)  Compare the hazards of one legal and one illegal addictive drug. What does.
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91)  Glucocorticoids are released from the A) anterior pituitary. B) adrenal medulla. C) thymus. D) both A and B E) none of the above 92)  The most commonly employed physiological measure of stress is the level of circulating A) glucocorticoids. B) adrenocorticotropic hormone. C) norepinephrine. D) epinephrine. E) serotonin. 93) .
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81)  Functional brain imaging studies of the role of human medial prefrontal cortex in emotion have often employed A) suppression paradigms. B) passive avoidance paradigms. C) reappraisal paradigms. D) all of the above E) both A and C 82)  Research on the lateralization of emotion in humans using functional brain.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  The left and right hemispheres are connected by the A) fornix. B) septum. C) cerebral commissures. D) cerebral ligaments. 2) The cerebral commissure indicated here is the A) corpus callosum. B) posterior commissure. C) anterior commissure. D) hippocampal commissure. E) massa commissura. 3)  The two hemispheres, although similar in appearance, differ in function..
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11)  Apraxia is usually associated with A) left-hemisphere lesions. B) right-hemisphere lesions. C) asphyxia. D) damage to Broca's area. E) damage to Wernicke's area. 12)  Apraxia usually A) results from right-hemisphere damage. B) results from left-hemisphere damage. C) affects the left side of the body far more than the right.
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11)  Fluoxetine, or __________, is an SSRI. 12)  M.R., the woman who was afraid to go out; she had a pathological fear of public places and open spaces. She suffered from the common phobic anxiety disorder: __________. 13)  Obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder are both considered to be __________ disorders. 14)  The agonistic.
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11)  The concordance rate of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins is A) the same as that in dizygotic twins. B) the same as that in any two siblings. C) slightly more than that in husbands and wives. D) slightly more than that in pairs of unrelated individuals. E) about 45%. 12)  Evidence that environmental factors play a.
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101)  Most patients with gastric ulcers display signs of H. pylori infection, however, to put this observation in perspective, it is important to understand that A) yogurt can reduce the infection. B) yogurt can increase the infection. C) probiotic yogurt can cure ulcers. D) many healthy people are similarly infected. E).
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91)  Common verbal tics of Tourette syndrome include A) echolalia. B) coprolalia. C) palilia. D) barking. E) all of the above 92)  Some patients with Tourette syndrome also display signs of A) attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. B) obsessive convulsive disorder. C) auditory and visual hallucinations. D) both A and B E) both A and C 93)  Tourette syndrome occurs more frequently in A) identical twins. B).
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11)  In many mammals, social aggression often depends greatly on the organizational and activational effects of __________. 12)  In response to the threat of an auditory conditional stimulus, the __________ is thought to activate appropriate behavioral circuits in the PAG and sympathetic circuits in the hypothalamus.                                          13) .
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61) Drugs that reduce depression without increasing mania or reduce mania without increasing depression are called A) mood stabilizers. B) SSRIs. C) tricyclic antidepressants. D) MAO inhibitors. E) monoamines. 62)  Many studies have found structural and functional brain pathology in patients suffering from affective disorders. Although there is little consensus about the exact location of the.
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111)  The first large-scale cortical electrical stimulation studies of conscious human patients were conducted by A) Lashley. B) Penfield. C) Hebb. D) Kimura. E) Milner. 112)  The smallest units of sound that distinguish among various words in a language are called A) semantics. B) syllables. C) graphics. D) lexicons. E).
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  Lena sat for hours in the middle of the floor staring into space; she was totally unresponsive and displayed waxy flexibility. She was diagnosed with stuporous __________ schizophrenia. 2)  The first antischizophrenic drug, __________, was initially developed as an antihistamine; its antischizophrenic actions were discovered accidentally in the early.
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11)  The James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories make __________ predictions about the effects of feedback from somatic and autonomic activity on emotional experience. A) different B) the same C) similar D) no E) five 12)  The emotional experiences of patients with broken necks A) indicate that somatic and autonomic feedback from.
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81)  The motor theory of the lateralization of cerebral function is that A) there are two basic modes of thinking, each localized in a different hemisphere. B) the left hemisphere has become specialized for the control of fine motor movements, including speech. C) the left hemisphere is dominant for all.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1)  Phineas Gage had damage to his medial A) diencephalon. B) prefrontal lobes. C) temporal lobes. D) parietal lobes. E) hippocampus. 2)  The first major book on the biopsychology of emotions A) was published in 1872. B) was The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. C) introduced.
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Essay Questions 1)  This figure illustrates the findings of the important experiment of Carlsson and Lindqvist (1963). Summarize this study and use the figure to explain the results. Explain how the findings contributed to the development of the dopamine theory of schizophrenia and to the discovery of a new mechanism by which.
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41)  The belief that putting on a happy face makes one feel happier is an example of the A) facial feedback hypothesis. B) Duchenne hypothesis. C) Ekman hypothesis. D) prosody principle. E) Pinel principle. 42)  The true expressions that momentarily break through false expressions are called A) flash expressions. B).
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Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1)  The discovery of the lateralization of language abilities is usually attributed to __________ although Dax preceded him. 2)  The sodium amytal test and the __________ test are both widely used tests of language lateralization. 3)  Most people are dextrals, but some are __________. 4)  The corpus callosum is.
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6)  Two brain structures have been most frequently linked to human emotion. Which are they? Describe research that has implicated each in human emotion. 7)  The stress response is composed of two parallel pathways, which are illustrated here. Label the four blank components of these pathways. 8)  Describe the two major.
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21)  Papez believed that emotional states were expressed through the action of the other structures of the limbic system on the A) amygdala. B) autonomic nervous system. C) hypothalamus. D) hippocampus. E) neocortex. 22) Illustrated here is the limbic system. The indicated structure is the A) cingulate gyrus. B) septum. C) hypothalamus. D) fornix. E).
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61)  Studies of the septal aggression phenomenon in rats suggest that it would be more appropriate to refer to it as A) hypothalamic aggression. B) septal defensiveness. C) hippocampal aggression. D) septal predatory aggression. E) septal social aggression. 62)  An important feature of social aggression that distinguishes it from other forms.
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71)  The left planum temporale roughly corresponds to A) Wernicke's area. B) Broca's area. C) the frontal operculum. D) Heschl's gyrus. E) primary auditory cortex. 72)  Broca's area roughly corresponds to A) the left planum temporale. B) the left frontal operculum. C) the left Heschl's gyrus. D) Wernicke's area. E).
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Essay and other multiple-mark Questions 1)  Describe three methods for studying lateralization of function in intact humans. Compare them. 2)  Describe the ground-breaking study of Myers and Sperry on split-brain cats. Explain why it has been so influential, and describe three of its contributions. 3)  Describe the methods used to study.
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101)  The subjects of the vast majority of clinical trials are A) human volunteers. B) rats. C) mice. D) monkeys. E) genes. 102)  Clinical trials are typically conducted in __________ separate phases. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 6 E) 10 103)  Determining the maximum safe dose for humans typically occurs in the __________ phase of human clinical trials. A) first B) second C).
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81)  Benzodiazepines A) are GABAA  agonists. B) are monoamine agonists. C) are catecholamine antagonists. D) are monoamine antagonists. E) bind to serotonin receptors. 82)  Buspirone A) does not bind to GABA receptors. B) is an anxiolytic drug. C) is an agonist at one serotonin receptor subtype. D) all of the above E) none of the above 83) Clinical depression and anxiety are.
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131)  There is now a general consensus that developmental dyslexia results from  A) a general attentional deficit. B) autistic tendencies. C) a disturbance of phonological processing. D) a variety of sensorimotor deficits. E) damage to the lateral geniculate.  132)  In comparison to English speakers, Italian speakers are __________ to be.
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21)  During the conventional dichotic listening test, most participants correctly report A) all digits heard through the right ear but none heard through the left. B) all digits heard through the left ear but none heard through the right. C) only those digits that are presented simultaneously to the two.
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31)  Because it is difficult to determine for certain whether a person who has been accused of breaking the law is innocent or guilty, many studies of lie detection use the A) guilty-knowledge technique. B) control-question technique. C) mock-crime procedure. D) all of the above E) both A and B.
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6) Label the seven components of the Wernicke-Geschwind model and briefly explain the hypothetical function of each. 7)  Briefly describe the Wernicke-Geschwind model, and evaluate its ability to predict research findings. Reach a conclusion based on the evidence. 8)  Discuss the cognitive neuroscience approach to language. Describe the methods and results.
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