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21.The tendency for journals to publish studies that have positive findings, rather than negative or ambiguous results, is called:

a.confirmation bias.

b.overreaching bias.

c.publication bias.

d.enterprise bias.

22.A person may have short-term success with antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs, but at least half of

patients stop taking them, often because of the ________ of the medication.

a.foul taste

b.unpleasant side effects

c.unproven effectiveness

d.societal stigma

23.Many people respond positively to a new drug just because of the enthusiasm surrounding it and their own expectations that the drug will make them feel better. This phenomenon is called the:

a.placebo effect.

b.novelty bias.

c.therapeutic window.

d.publication bias.

24.After a long period of controlled trials, the FDA approves a drug for the treatment of school-aged boys with ADHD. After it is approved, doctors are permitted to prescribe it:

a.only for school-aged boys with a diagnosis of ADHD.

b.for anyone diagnosed with ADHD.

c.for other conditions, but only to school-aged boys.

d.for other conditions and to populations other than school-aged boys.

25. Which treatment is LEAST likely to be used today?

a. drug therapy

b. prefrontal lobotomy

c. ECT

d. behavior therapy

26.In the 1950’s, Emily had a procedure done to her in which the doctor used an instrument to cut the nerve fibers connecting her prefrontal cortex to the rest of the brain. This procedure, called _____________, left her withdrawn and unable to care for herself.

a.ECT

b.deep brain surgery

c.a lobotomy

d.transcranial stimulation

27.Balthazar is being treated through a procedure in which electrodes are placed on both sides of his head and a brief current is turned on. The current triggers a seizure that lasts about a minute, causing his body to convulse. This type of treatment is known as:

a.SSRI.

b.MAO.

c.ECT.

d.PET.

28.________ is a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain               seizure is induced.

a.Electroencephalography

b.Magnetic resonance therapy

c.Electroconvulsive therapy

d.Positron emission tomography

29.Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat ________ that has not responded to other               treatments, but its effects are short lived.

a.severe anxiety

b.severe depression

c.schizophrenia

d.obsessive-compulsive disorder

30.Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation are primarily used to treat:

a.anxiety.

b.psychosis.

c.major depression.

d.obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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