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# Question :   11. When scores improve simply due to having taken a

11. When scores improve simply due to having taken a pretest, this threat to validity is called:

a. History effect

b. Multiple-treatment interference

c. Testing effect

d. Maturation effect

12. A researcher does a study of a mathematics program in a one-group pretest-posttest design. She gives the group of second graders a multiple-choice pretest. Unknown to her, the children had never taken a multiple-choice test. The children scored higher on the same test given at posttest. She argues that the children improved because of the mathematics program. That the children had never taken a multiple choice test before and showed improvement at posttest suggests that one possible threat to her conclusion is a:

a. History effect

b. Multiple-treatment interference

c. Testing effect

d. Selection effect

13. If the way a variable is measured changes during the course of a study, this threat to validity is called:

a. Testing effect

b. Instrumentation effect

c. Maturation effect

d. Multiple-treatment interference

14. A researcher is carrying out a study of the effects of teaching different approaches to argumentation on writing persuasive essays. He pretests the participants by having them write three persuasive essays prior to the study, and three essays after the study. He has two individuals grade all the essays. The two individuals were given no training prior to the study. The essays from the students in the study actually looked worse rather than better after the study. Based on the information presented above, what threat to internal validity could explain the contradictory finding?

a. Selection

b. Maturation effect

c. Instrumentation

d. History effect

15. The tendency of scores that are well below the mean to move up toward the mean on retesting, and the tendency of scores that are well above the mean to move down toward the mean on retesting is called:

a. Selection effect

b. Maturation effect

c. Instrumentation effect

d. Regression artifact effect

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