11. What kinds of societies typically associated with slash-and-burn cultivation?
A. : 2097755
11. What kinds of societies typically are associated with slash-and-burn cultivation?
A. foraging societies
B. state-level societies
C. hydraulic societies
D. nonindustrial societies
E. nomadic societies
12. Which of the following statements about shifting cultivation is true?
A. It is typically associated with the use of draft animals.
B. It cannot support permanent villages.
C. It requires irrigation.
D. It requires cultivators to change plots of land, with the fallowing durations varying in different societies.
E. It relies extensively on chemical fertilizers.
13. Why do slash-and-burn cultivators stop using a plot of land every two to three years?
A. They burn so much wood that the air becomes too polluted to support a healthful existence.
B. Slash-and-burn cultivation is unique to segmentary-lineage organized societies, and crop rotation follows the cycle of interlineage exchange.
C. Slash-and-burn cultivation is associated with big-game hunting, which requires regular movement so as not to deplete the animal population.
D. Slash-and-burn cultivators use relatively primitive irrigation systems, which have to be repaired every three to four years.
E. They do not use fertilizer; thus, their crops exhaust the soil quickly.
14. Which of the following statements about irrigation is NOT true?
A. Irrigated fields typically increase in value through time.
B. Irrigation is one of the defining characteristics of foraging societies.
C. Irrigation usually enriches the soil.
D. The Betsileo of Madagascar used irrigation intensively.
E. Irrigation fields are labor intensive compared to swidden (burned over) fields.
15. In this chapter we learned that we should not view contemporary foragers as isolated or pristine survivors of the Stone Age. In fact, all societies, no matter how small or seemingly remote, are influenced by regional and even global forces. For example, the Kamayurá Indians, who live in the middle of Xingu National Park in Brazil, have had to deal with which of the following threats to their livelihood?
A. the encroachment of guerrilla fighters and miners seeking tourmalines, a precious stone currently in high demand
B. drier weather from deforestation and climate change, and the negative impact that this has on their subsistence crops and the availability of food that they relied on through fishing and hunting
C. the encroachment of urban development of coastal Brazilians in search of a life closer to nature
D. pressure from missionaries attempting to transform them into a cash-crop society
E. unpredictable weather patterns that have increased precipitation in the region and turned jungle into swamp