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Which of the following is NOT a function of dietary fiber

Question : Which of the following is NOT a function of dietary fiber : 2152000

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Which of the following is NOT a function of dietary fiber?

A) Slowing the absorption of glucose to manage insulin secretion

B) Interfering with the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol

C) Helping to transport protein to support muscle development and growth

D) Promoting gastrointestinal function and motility

2) Carbohydrate intake is recommended at 45%—65% of calories. Sally eats approximately 2000 calories a day with approximately 200 grams of carbohydrates. What percentage of total calories is her carbohydrate intake?

A) 50%

B) 60%

C) 40%

D) 30%

3) All complex carbohydrates are eventually broken down into glucose because glucose is the body's major energy source.

A) Both the statement and reason are correct and related.

B) Neither the statement nor the reason is correct.

C) Both the statement and reason are correct but not related.

D) The statement is correct, but the reason is not.

E) The statement is not correct, but the reason is correct.

4) All of the following are classified as monosaccharides with the exception of one. What is the exception?

A) Glucose

B) Sucrose

C) Galactose

D) Fructose

5) All of the following are essential functions of carbohydrates in the body except one. Which one is the exception?

A) Ensure proper fat metabolism

B) Provide an energy source

C) Spare body protein from degradation

D) Form essential amino acids

6) All of the following are disaccharides except one. Which one is the exception?

A) Glucose

B) Maltose

C) Lactose

D) Sucrose

7) The only forms of carbohydrates that can be directly absorbed in the body are

A) Monosaccharides

B) Fiber

C) Disaccharides

D) Starch

8) Glycogen can be stored in which of the following structures?

A) Kidney

B) Muscle

C) Both muscle and liver

D) Liver

9) Excess dietary glucose will be stored in the liver or muscles as glycogen. The process of converting glucose into glycogen for storage is called glycogenesis.

A) Both statements are true.

B) Both statements are false.

C) The first statement is true; the second is false.

D) The first statement is false; the second is true.

10) Glucose metabolism is tightly regulated through hormonal control by which of the following structures?

A) Pancreas

B) Liver

C) Muscle

D) All of the above

11) If blood glucose levels become too low

A) The body has no compensation mechanisms and will go into hypometabolic shock if more carbohydrate is not consumed

B) Epinephrine and corticosteroids act to help transport glucose into cells for use as energy

C) Glucagon is released from the pancreas, stimulating glycogen breakdown in the liver

D) Insulin is released from the pancreas stimulating glycogen breakdown in the liver

12) Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for management of possible hypoglycemia in the dental office?

A) Keep sources of rapidly absorbed sugars such as orange juice readily available in the office

B) Provide all type 1 diabetic patients with a source of rapidly absorbed sugar such as orange juice prior to any dental procedure

C) Keep a glucometer in the office emergency kit for measuring blood sugar levels

D) Schedule appointments with patients requiring insulin early in the day following breakfast

13) Inadequate carbohydrate intake may result in

A) Constipation

B) Nutrient deficiency

C) Ketone body formation

D) All of these

14) Which of the following helps remove glucose from the blood?

A) Glycogenesis

B) Gluconeogenesis

C) Thyroid hormone

D) Glycogenolysis

15) Examples of complex carbohydrates include all of the following except one. Which one is the exception?

A) Apples

B) Orange juice

C) Sweet potatoes

D) Brown rice

16) Lactose intolerance

A) Is an enzyme deficiency that develops only during childhood

B) Occurs predominately in caucasian females

C) Is a milk allergy

D) Causes symptoms such as bloating, gas, and stomach pain

17) Which of the following is TRUE about Type II diabetes?

A) It requires total carbohydrate restriction.

B) It is always the result of destruction of cells in the pancreas resulting in insulin deficiency.

C) It occurs only in children.

D) It is the most common type of diabetes in the United States.

18) An individual diagnosed with celiac disease can eat all of the following grains with the exception of one. What is the exception?

A) Rice

B) Whole wheat

C) Oats

D) Corn

19) Nonnutritive sweeteners

A) Are less sweet than regular table sugar

B) Fail to drop the plaque pH levels low enough to cause enamel demineralization

C) Are not approved for safety by the FDA

D) Are all synthetically made

20) The sweetest artificial sweetener is

A) Aspartame

B) Acesulame-K

C) Sucralose

D) Saccharine

21) Dental professionals should encourage patients to

A) Increase their intake of high-fiber foods

B) Obtain the majority of carbohydrates from foods such as grains, fruits, and vegetables

C) Limit sources of added sugars

D) All of the above

22) The enzyme responsible for breaking down lactose is called

A) Lipase

B) Insulin

C) Lactaid

D) Lactase

23) Dietary starch

A) Can be found in both amylose and amylopectin

B) Is found in foods such as over-ripe fruits

C) Should be consumed in very limited amounts due to its high caloric content

D) Is mainly present in the form of glycogen

24) Which of the following is the polysaccharide used for storage of glucose in plants?

A) Maltose

B) Fiber

C) Starch

D) Glycogen

25) Which of the following is the polysaccharide used for storage of glucose in animals?

A) Starch

B) Maltose

C) Fiber

D) Glycogen

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

26) Easy-to-digest carbohydrates, such as simple sugars and refined foods, should provide the greater part of carbohydrate intake.

27) Fibers such as cellulose are important sources of energy in human diets.

28) Lactose intolerance and milk allergy are two different terms for the same condition.

29) Artificial sweeteners cause cancer.

30) It is impossible to get adequate fiber without using fiber supplements.

31) The term carbohydrate only refers to simple sugars.

32) Complex carbohydrates such as starch and fiber consist of long glucose chains.

33) Fructose is formed by a glycosidic linkage between sucrose and glucose.

34) Sucrose is the sweetest carbohydrate.

35) Patients with poorly controlled with Type 2 diabetes have a greater risk for more severe periodontal disease than those without diabetes.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

36) The elements ________, ________, and ________ make up carbohydrates.

37) Carbohydrates are formed in plants through the process of ________.

38) ________ is the disaccharide known as table sugar, that is derived from sugar cane or sugar beets?

39) ________ is the final breakdown product of all carbohydrates and is the major energy source of the body.

40) Polysaccharides are composed of at least ________ units linked together.

41) According to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range from the DRI, the recommended daily amount of carbohydrate in the diet is ________

42) Whole grains products are higher in fiber because they contain the ________ and ________ parts of the grain, while processed white grains only contain the ________.

43) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ________ and is completed in the ________.

44) Xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol are examples of ________.

45) Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme ________.

46) The artificial sugar ________ should not be given to individuals with phenylketonuria.

47) ________ refers to the measure of how rapidly a food raises blood glucose.

48) ________ is a metabolic condition that impairs the body's ability to use carbohydrates.

49) ________ is a condition in which blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL.

50) ________ include substances other than the carbohydrate classes of monosaccharides and disaccharides.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

51) As a future oral-healthcare professional, what are some suggestions that can be made to a patient with lactose intolerance?

52) What are the pros and cons of non-caloric sweeteners?

53) When speaking about carbohydrates, what dietary practices should patients follow?

54) The 2015 Dietary Guidelines recommend that added sugars account for less than 10 percent of daily calories, yet most Americans consume far more that this. List some of the major sources of added sugar in the American diet.

55) What is meant by the term "protein sparing"? Why is this concept important to understand?

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