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This image of the Valles Caldera in New Mexico shows a landscape

Question : This image of the Valles Caldera in New Mexico shows a landscape : 2161404

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

61)

This image of the Valles Caldera in New Mexico shows a landscape in which there is a large flat meadow surrounded by rocky rims of volcanic rock. The meadow is several miles across. Why is this called a caldera?

A) It has volcanic rock.

B) It is several miles across.

C) It is a crater.

D) All of the above are correct.

62) A ________ is the largest discordant body of intrusive, igneous rock.

A) pluton

B) batholith

C) lopolith

D) laccolith

63) Which of the following is a tabular intrusive body with subparallel intrusive contacts?

A) laccolith

B) dike

C) columnar joints

D) stock

64) Which of the following is emplaced over millions of years to form a composite intrusive complex?

A) batholith

B) laccolith

C) sill

D) dike

65) A ________ is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.

A) sill

B) pluton

C) dike

D) laccolith

66) A ________ is a near surface, intrusive igneous rock body that results from local inflation of a horizontal sill.

A) batholith

B) volcanic neck

C) dike

D) laccolith

67) Which of the following best describes the bedrock in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California?

A) Batholiths crystallize at the surface, so they are simply still in place.

B) Batholiths crystallize below the surface but were later exposed by way of erosion of overlying material.

C) Batholiths crystallize below the surface but then flow upwards towards the surface.

D) The batholiths were washed downhill from distant mountains and deposited here.

68)

Note the image showing a series of batholiths on the landscape. How did those batholiths get exposed at the surface?

A) Batholiths crystallize below the surface but then flow upwards towards the surface.

B) The batholiths were washed downhill from distant mountains and deposited here.

C) Batholiths crystallize at the surface, so they are simply still in place.

D) Batholiths crystallize below the surface but were later exposed by way of erosion of overlying material.

69) Which of the following is not an accurate statement about the melting process in the earth's interior?

A) Addition of water commonly contributes to production of magma.

B) The earth's mantle is entirely molten.

C) Upwelling flow in the earth's interior brings higher temperature rocks toward the surface and contributes to decompression melting.

D) Melting of rocks is incomplete with partial melts extracted as magma and solid residues left behind.

70) Which of the following best describes melting of the mantle at subduction zones that leads to island arc volcanoes?

A) The subducted plate subsides into the mantle and allows magma from the lower mantle magma ocean to rise toward the surface.

B) Water released from the subducting plate decreases the melting temperature in the mantle above the downgoing plate to generate magmas from the overlying mantle wedge.

C) Heat is carried downward with the subducting plate and melts the mantle above the downgoing plate.

D) The subducting plate is cooled as it is carried to depth and the subducted oceanic crust melts.

71)

The image shows the nature of melting at the Mid-Ocean Ridge. The image indicates that melting is ________.

A) only away from the Mid-Ocean Ridge

B) localized below the Mid-Ocean Ridge

C) widespread throughout the mantle

D) only within the water

72) The largest percentage of total magma production on earth occurs at what plate tectonic setting?

A) convergent plate margins

B) hot spots like Hawaii

C) transform plate margins

D) spreading ridges

73) Most of the active volcanoes on land are located in a belt known as the ________.

A) Ring of Fire

B) Red Sea rift

C) Mid-Pacific Ridge

D) Gulf Coast zone

74) Which of the following statements best describes the big Hawaiian volcanoes?

A) They lie directly above a transform plate boundary that cuts deeply into the mantle.

B) They lie directly above an active subduction zone where the Pacific plate is sinking into the mantle.

C) They are situated in the interior of a large, Pacific plate above a hot spot deep in the mantle.

D) They lie along the crest of the East Pacific Rise, a mid-ocean ridge or spreading center.

75) Volcanic activity in Yellowstone National Park is related to ________.

A) plate subduction

B) a transform plate boundary

C) intraplate, hot spot volcanism

D) a divergent plate boundary

76) In what plate tectonic setting are magmas generated predominantly by fluids from ocean waters in trenches "fluxing" the melting process by decreasing melting temperature?

A) hot spots

B) transform faults

C) spreading ridges

D) convergent plate margins

77) Which type of plate margin is characterized by volcanoes that include basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite?

A) convergent plate margins

B) hot spots

C) spreading ridges

D) transform faults

78) Most granitic batholiths are generated ________.

A) where spreading ridges occur beneath continents

B) as intrusions beneath composite volcanoes along convergent plate margins

C) along transform faults, which accounts for their linear geographic distribution

D) along hot spot chains beneath continents, like a welder cutting through the continent to make a linear belt of intrusive granites

79) Dissolved gases may comprise up to ________ of a magma.

A) about half

B) most of

C) all of

D) a few percent of

80) The viscosities of magmas ________ with increasing percentages of silica.

A) increase

B) decrease

C) are unrelated

Solution
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