The Fashion Industry
The Green Guide offers advice on green living, wearing organic materials, and preserving the environment. In a report on clothing, the guide announced that many companies in the fashion industry are paying attention to its message. The number one action point for consumers seeking an environmentally-forward wardrobe is to "buy used clothing." Trash Couture creates neo-luxury from other people's waste. The aptly named company gives a new life to vintage garments through customized embellishments or dissected pieces re-applied to other recycled clothing. Noir, a French-based fashion design company, uses only organic cotton grown on farms that it has established in sub-Saharan Africa. The clothing industry is also moving towards greener marketing. American Apparel, known for manufacturing all of its clothes in the United States recycles about 5 million pounds of fabric scraps annually, uses solar panels to provide power, and gives free bicycles and helmets to employees who wish to cycle to work. Increasingly, consumers are basing brand loyalty on how companies interact with the natural environment.
121.Refer to The Fashion Industry. The fashion industry has discovered that _____ generates sales and consumer satisfaction.
a.creating channel conflict
b.acting with discretionary responsibility
d.upholding the law
e.becoming an ethical ombudsman
122.Refer to The Fashion Industry. According to the passage American Apparel uses a _________strategy to social responsibility.
123.Refer to The Fashion Industry. The total harm or benefit derived from deciding what fabrics to use and how and where the production will occur is referred to as the:
c.concentration of synergy
d.magnitude of consequences
124.Refer to The Fashion Industry. Given our expanding awareness of global warming, decisions about using pesticide-free fabrics have a growing degree of:
125.Refer to The Fashion Industry. The founders of Trash Couture were worried about pollution and had internalized the belief that we should protect our natural environment whenever possible. At which level of moral development were they operating?
126.Refer to The Fashion Industry. Which of the following principles of ethical decision making most likely governs the actions of companies like Noir and American Apparel?
a.the principle of individual justice
b.the principle of utilitarian benefits
c.the principle of government rights
d.the principle of reciprocal virtue
e.the principle of short-term self-interest
127.Refer to The Fashion Industry. By offering pollution-free transportation to its employees, in addition to its other actions to protect the environment, American Apparel is attempting to create a(n):
c.individually mandated ethical involvement
d.system of utilitarian benefits
e.system of reciprocal virtue
128.Refer to The Fashion Industry. By balancing the needs of consumers with the needs of the natural environment, companies like Noir and Trash Couture are:
a.acting with social consensus
b.establishing economic responsibility
c.relying on consumer munificence
d.creating social proximity
e.acting socially responsible
129.Refer to The Fashion Industry. Farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who grow organic cotton for Noir and other companies in the fashion industry are examples of _____ stakeholders.
P&G and PETA
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the animal-rights group more commonly known as PETA, is extremely adept at organizing campaigns and mobilizing the public to boycott companies. Its public relations tactics include celebrity endorsements, traveling displays of animal cruelty, and on-site demonstrations. So, when PETA began its “Died” campaign, targeting Procter & Gamble for animal testing practices, P&G management became legitimately concerned.
PETA has been known to use pretty crude tactics to get its point across. For instance, PETA successfully launched a six-year campaign of intimidation against a farm that bread guinea pigs for scientific research, with strategies including hate mail, malicious phone calls, death threats, arson, car vandalism, and a pedophile smear campaign. Clearly PETA will do anything to achieve its goals. Even large international companies like McDonald’s, Burger King, and KFC have responded to pressure from PETA by issuing and enforcing strict animal handling guidelines to their meat suppliers. The “Died” campaign against P&G, based on P&G’s Tide laundry detergent, shows a woman holding a box of “Died” detergent with the words “Thousands of Animals Died for Your Laundry.” PETA has encouraged consumers to boycott all P&G products until the company ends all forms of animal testing.
Companies like P&G have both an ethical and legal obligation to ensure the safety of their products for consumer use and consumption. Many such companies, including P&G, have invested heavily in exploring alternatives to using animals for product safety testing; however, these technologies are not sophisticated enough to completely replace animal testing. Consequently, entirely eliminating animal testing would be imprudent and negligent. P&G continues to use animal testing but only when absolutely necessary.
Though groups like PETA have an influence over P&G’s practices, their interactions with the company are limited and irregular. P&G’s primary responsibilities lie with groups like shareholders, customers, and employees. The potential threats and damages to the company such as lawsuits and unsafe products that might result from the elimination of animal testing would have a much greater effect on customer confidence, shareholder stakes, and employee job security.
With regards to PETA, legally all P&G would have to do is make sure that no animal abuse occurs in its product testing. It is already doing this, and in fact is going further, by exploring ways to further eliminate the need for animal testing. In addition to its own programs, P&G also funds independent agencies and institutions that are experimenting with alternative approaches.
130.Refer to P&G and PETA. PETA more than likely sees greater _____ than P&G’s research and development department when making decisions involving animals.
131.Refer to P&G and PETA. PETA apparently expects all for-profit organizations to adhere to the:
a.principle of long-term self interest
b.principle of utilitarian requirements
c.principle of distributive justice
d.principle of community injunctions
e.principle of personal virtue
132.Refer to P&G and PETA. Like many organizations trying to act more ethically, what should P&G’s first step be as it adopts more ethical decision-making practices concerning animal testing?
a.to select and hire ethical employees
b.to establish a visionary code of ethics
c.to create an ethical ombudsman program
d.to develop individual ethics codes for its employees
e.to do all of these
133.Refer to P&G and PETA. By ensuring that no animals are abused during the testing of its products while also making sure that its products are safe for human use, P&G is acting:
a.according to social consensus
b.with social munificence
e.with social proximity