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Social processes such as affect our chances of becoming or not becoming criminal offenders

Question : Social processes such as affect our chances of becoming or not becoming criminal offenders : 2141749

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Social processes such as ________ affect our chances of becoming or not becoming criminal offenders.

A) Brain chemistry, punishment, and media

B) Peer influences, socialization, and social interaction

C) Broken windows, poor nutrition, and inequality

D) Strain, atavism, and superego

2) Which of the following best describes Sutherland's differential association?

A) People are more likely to engage in deviance when they are either very controlling or very controlled than when they have a balance of control

B) Techniques of and attitudes regarding criminal behavior are learned within intimate personal groups

C) Inner containments (e.g., a positive self-concept and tolerance for frustration) and outer containments (e.g., family influences) help prevent juvenile offending

D) Some individuals' antisocial behavior is serious and persists adolescence-limited through the life course

3) Which of the following is not one of the principles of Sutherland's differential associations?

A) Crime is the result of a lack of serious punishments for deviant behavior

B) Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication

C) Criminal behavior is learned

D) Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity

4) According to Sutherland:

A) Crime results due to economic inequality and a lack of self-control

B) A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to the violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of law

C) An individual will choose crime when he/she lives in relative deprivation

D) People pursue criminal behavior to the extent they identify with members of reference groups who engage in criminal behavior

5) Perhaps the most important criticism of differential association concerns ________.

A) Methodology

B) Labeling

C) Intimate interactions

D) Causal order

6) Which of the following best summarizes differential reinforcement?

A) Some individuals' antisocial behavior is serious and persists adolescence-limited through the life course

B) Criminal behavior and attitudes are more likely to be learned if they are rewarded by friends and/or family

C) People pursue criminal behavior to the extent they identify with members of reference groups who engage in criminal behavior

D) Inner containments (e.g., a positive self-concept and tolerance for frustration) and outer containments (e.g., family influences) help prevent juvenile offending

7) Burgess and Akers argued that criminal behavior and attitudes are more likely to be ________ if they are reinforced, or rewarded, usually by friends, family, or both.

A) Institutional

B) Innate

C) Learned

D) Biological

8) Which of the following is the dominant learning theory today?

A) Social learning

B) Life-course

C) Power-control

D) Rational choice

9) Which of the following is a neutralization technique?

A) Denial of hope

B) Denial of responsibility

C) Denial of participation

D) Denial of truth

10) Even if offenders concede that they are about to harm someone or something, they may reason that their target deserves the harm. This is the neutralization technique of ________.

A) Denial of injury

B) Appeal to higher loyalty

C) Denial of law

D) Denial of the victim

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