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Minerals are a group of elements that A) Must be supplied by the diet B) Are needed in large quantities

Question : Minerals are a group of elements that A) Must be supplied by the diet B) Are needed in large quantities : 2152009

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Minerals are a group of elements that

A) Must be supplied by the diet

B) Are needed in large quantities

C) Are not necessary for normal health and function

D) Are made in the body

2) Minerals are inorganic compounds. This means they

A) Are not essential for body function

B) Are artificially added to foods

C) Do not contain carbon

D) Contain oxygen

3) An example of a macromineral includes

A) Iron

B) Fluoride

C) Zinc

D) Calcium

4) The best way to obtain all of the essential minerals is to consume a

A) Lot of dairy

B) Lot of meat

C) Lot of vegetables

D) Variety of foods from the food guide pyramid

5) Mineral bioavailability widely varies among minerals and is influenced by

A) Food and meal composition

B) Body nutrient status

C) Processing

D) All of the above

6) Which of the following food sources of calcium is the most bioavailable?

A) Leafy greens

B) Soy

C) Dairy

D) Fish

7) Which is the correct name of the calcium deficiency state in children?

A) Osteomalacia

B) Rickets

C) Osteoporosis

D) Anemia

8) Which of the following statements are TRUE about calcium?

1. Natural sources such as dairy products are more efficiently absorbed than

calcium carbonate supplements.

2. Low-fat skim milk is significantly lower in calcium than whole milk.

3. High calcium intakes via supplements do not pose health risks.

4. Calcium absorption may be affected by other dietary factors such as oxalic acid or phytic acid.

5. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.

A) 1, 2, 5

B) 1, 2, 4

C) 1, 4, 5

D) All of the above are true

9) People at risk for insufficient calcium intake include those with

A) Lactose intolerance

B) Malabsorptive conditions

C) Milk allergies

D) All of these

10) 90% of peak bone mass production may be reached up to what age?

A) 30

B) 21

C) 20

D) 45

11) Bone is built by which of the following cells?

A) Osteoclast

B) Remodeling

C) Osteoblast

D) Amorphous

12) Hypophosphatemia can result from excess phosphorus intake. Excess phosphorus intake is a concern in the US due to the widespread fortification of salt.

A) Both statements are true.

B) Both statements are false.

C) The first statement is true; the second is false.

D) The first statement is false; the second is true.

13) Dark green leafy vegetables are a particularly rich source of magnesium because magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll in plants.

A) Both the statement and reason are correct and related.

B) The statement is not correct, but the reason is correct.

C) Neither the statement nor the reason is correct.

D) Both the statement and reason are correct but not related.

E) The statement is correct, but the reason is not.

14) The definition of fluoridation is the adjustment of water to contain from ________ to ________ ppm of fluoride.

A) 1.0; 2.0

B) 0.5; 1

C) 0.7; 1.2

D) 0.1; 0.5

15) Salt substitutes use this mineral to replace sodium.

A) Iodine

B) Potassium

C) Chloride

D) Phosphorus

16) The greatest natural source of iodide is in

A) Salt

B) Nuts

C) Saltwater seafood

D) Plants

17) Iodine

A) Is primarily located in the thyroid gland in the body

B) Deficiency occurs mainly in coastal regions

C) Deficiency never occurs due to the widespread use of iodized salt

D) Can be synthesized in the body from tyrosine

18) The most reliable way to ensure an adequate iodide intake is to eat/drink which of the following?

A) Whole grains

B) Fortified orange juice

C) Iodized table salt

D) Milk

19) All of the following are physiological functions of zinc except one. Which is the exception?

A) Taste smell function

B) Cell growth and replication, and wound healing

C) Vitamin C absorption

D) Immune system function

20) Those at risk for zinc deficiency include all of the following except one. Which is the exception?

A) Alcoholics

B) Athletes

C) Vegetarians

D) People who have had bariatric surgery

21) Changes in taste such as as hypogeusia (diminished taste sensitivity) and altered tastes of saltiness, sweetness, or bitterness of foods may occur as a result of deficiency of which mineral?

A) Selenium

B) Iodine

C) Zinc

D) Iron

22) Which of the following are the richest sources of iron?

A) Fatty foods such as butter, margarine, lard, and oil

B) Animal meats, organ meats, fortified grains, and cereals

C) Leafy greens such as spinach, kale, broccoli, and lettuce

D) Fruits such as oranges, limes, peaches, and melons

23) What is the storage form of iron?

A) Ferritin

B) Transferrin

C) Heme iron

D) Hemochromatosis

24) Which of the following is TRUE about the bioavailability of iron?

A) Drinking a cup of coffee at the same time as eating an iron-rich food increases the bioavailability.

B) Animal iron sources are more bioavailable than plant iron sources.

C) Vitamin C decreases bioavailability.

D) Non-heme iron is the most bioavailable form.

25) All of the following are toxic to humans with the exception of one. What is the exception?

A) Lead

B) Mercury

C) Cadmium

D) Nickel

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

26) Minerals cannot be made in the body.

27) Magnesium is classified as a micromineral.

28) Microminerals are needed in quantities of at least 5 mg/day.

29) The chemical form of a mineral can affect bioavailability.

30) Most people in the US get adequate calcium from their diet.

31) Fluoride is naturally found at varying concentrations in all drinking water.

32) The majority of the body's phosphorus is located in the bones and teeth.

33) The majority of calcium is absorbed in the stomach.

34) As a public health measure, some table salt has been enriched with the mineral iodine.

35) Oral zinc lozenges may shorten the symptoms of the common cold if taken within 24 hours of onset.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

36) Ninety percent of peak bone mass is usually attained by the age of ________ in girls and ________ in boys.

37) ________ describe minerals needed in amounts of 100 mg/day or more.

38) The minerals present in the highest concentrations in the body are ________ and ________.

39) The body's ________ serves as a reservoir for calcium, providing a source for calcium-dependent functions in the body.

40) The mineral ________ is very important in compounds such as ATP and ADP, which function in energy metabolism.

41) The mineral ________ reduces the absorption of copper.

42) The majority of the body's stores of phosphorus are in the ________ and ________.

43) Excess fluoride in developing teeth can result in ________.

44) The ________ are responsible for maintaining appropriate body stores of phosphorus.

45) The mineral ________, when consumed in optimal amounts, can reduce the risk and prevalence of dental caries.

46) ________ is the most abundant trace mineral in the body.

47) During adolescence and young adulthood, it is recommended to consume ________ to ________ servings of foods rich in calcium daily.

48) The mineral ________ is deposited in calcified structures in the body such as bones and teeth.

49) Bone mineral density can be measured using a ________.

50) ________ is the most easily measured and most accurate predictor of bone health.

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

51) The bioavailability of minerals is influenced by many factors. List the ways mineral absorption is enhanced and reduced.

52) What are the best food sources of calcium?

53) Which populations are at risk for inadequate calcium in their diet?

54) Explain the relationship between fluoride and oral health.

55) How can oral-health professionals help patients achieve optimal mineralization of teeth and bones?

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