Question : Irregularities in brightness on the Sun's photosphere (granules) are produced : 2147174
49) Irregularities in brightness on the Sun's photosphere (granules) are produced by ________.
A) local violent explosions within the photosphere equivalent to a hydrogen bomb explosion
B) large convective cells within the photosphere
C) different elemental abundances being stirred within the photosphere, to produce variable brightness
D) pods of solid mass ejected to the photosphere by violent explosions within the Sun's interior, hence the name granule
50) The part of the Sun clearly visible during a solar eclipse is ________.
A) the corona
B) the chromospheres
C) the photosphere
D) the mesosphere
51) The solar wind originates from ________.
A) the interior of the Sun
B) the photosphere
C) the heliosphere
D) the corona
52) There are websites that predict solar weather, or essentially the impact of the solar wind on earth. How is this possible when the speed of light is a fixed quantity?
A) The solar weather effect on Earth depends largely on the earth's magnetic field and its interaction with Earth weather, so scientists predict variations in both.
B) The solar wind does not travel at the speed of light, so it arrives much later than when a solar event is observed.
C) The solar weather is related to sunspots, and they only affect Earth when the sunspots are in line with the earth, so knowing the solar rotation speed, you can predict when sunspots are aimed at Earth.
D) The solar forecast is like weather forecasting on Earth; solar scientists observe phenomena as they form and grow on the sun, and predict their timing.
53) The corona is about ________ degrees Kelvin.
A) 1 million
54) The frequency of sunspots and related solar activity is ________.
A) a 7 year cycle
B) a 22 year cycle
C) an 11 year cycle
D) not a regular cycle
55) Prominences and solar flares present dangers to astronauts primarily because ________.
A) they can overheat the spacecraft
B) they pose a radiation danger from X-rays and gamma rays, but primarily from high-energy particle emissions
C) they disrupt communications on Earth
D) they do not pose a danger to astronauts
56) If solar flares pose a danger to orbiting spacecraft and astronauts, how much warning is there for the danger?
A) The primary danger is from high energy particles that travel at the speed of the solar wind 500km/s, so there is ample warning of 3-5 days.
B) The danger is from high energy particles moving thousands of km per second, so the warning is a few hours.
C) There is no warning; the radiation arrives at the same time as the feature is observed because they all travel at the speed of light.
D) The danger is primarily from emission of neutrinos, which move at just below the speed of light; hence the warning is only a few seconds after a feature is observed.
57) Hale discovered that sunspots were associated with magnetic fields. What happens to these magnetic fields during a full sunspot cycle?
A) They get weaker.
B) They get stronger.
C) They die away.
D) They change polarity.
58) If you live at high latitude, when do you expect to see the aurora?
A) at intermediate periods when sunspots are present but not prominent
B) at times of high sunspot activity, during the active sun
C) during low sun spot activity, when solar flares are most abundant
D) at times when the earth's magnetic field has temporarily been weakened