Question : Hirschi and Stark's "Hellfire and Delinquency" found a very weak relationship : 2153825
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
1) Hirschi and Stark's "Hellfire and Delinquency" found a very weak relationship between church attendance and non-delinquency.
2) In "The Natural History of Nonsense," Evans outlines numerous examples of commonsense-nonsense issues that have greatly hindered human progress.
3) Replication combines rational theoretical explanation with the scientific method.
4) Verification is confirmation of the accuracy of findings.
5) Systematic application of the scientific method to research problems provided only nominal breakthroughs in the development of knowledge.
6) Criminal justice researchers, unlike physical scientists, find their subject matter a topic of popular discussion in which the layperson's experience is viewed as just as good a guide to policy as that of the researcher.
7) A theory is a model or schema that provides a perspective from which to view reality.
8) A paradigm is a plausible explanation of reality (why and how do things occur).
9) Edwin Sutherland's concept of "white-collar crime" serves as an example of a paradigm revolution in criminology, a radical reorientation in theoretical views of the nature of criminality.
10) Methodology involves the collection of hypotheses and/or data regarding the nature of crime and criminal justice.
11) Pure research is the acquisition of knowledge for science's sake; acquisition of knowledge that contributes to the scientific development of a discipline.
12) Applied research is concerned with solving or addressing immediate policy problems.
13) Crime analysis is an example of pure research.
14) In quantitative research, concepts are assigned numerical values.
15) In qualitative research, concepts are viewed as sensitizing ideals or terms that enhance our understanding.
16) The 'independent variable' is also known as the 'outcome variable'.
17) The 'dependent variable' is also known as the 'predictor variable'.
18) Problem formulation, one of the general steps in empirical research, is a type of experimental or nonexperimental approach.
19) Problem formulation is the selection, identification, and specification of the research topic to be investigated.
20) A primary problem faced by students is a lack of available online academic journals and periodicals.
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
21) ________ combines rational theoretical explanations with the scientific method.
22) ________ is the repetition of experiments or studies utilizing the same methodology.
23) ________ is the confirmation of the accuracy of findings; attainment of greater certitude in conclusions through additional observations.
24) ________ is the fanatical adherence to a preferred method at the expense of substance.
25) ________ involves the collection of accurate facts or data; attempt to address the issue of 'what is'.
26) ________ is practical research concerned with solving or addressing immediate policy problems.
27) ________ is the acquisition of knowledge for science's sake; acquisition of knowledge that contributes to the scientific development of a discipline.
28) ________ is the systematic, analytic process aimed at providing practical information related to crime patterns.
29) ________ is Webster's notion that the purpose of research is to gain a qualitative "understanding" of phenomena from the perspective of the subjects.
30) ________ is the view that if one cannot quantitatively measure a phenomenon, it is not worth studying.
31) ________ is the operationalization and numerical measurement of variables.
32) ________ is research for the purpose of developing "sensitizing concepts" and verstehen rather than quantitative measurement.
33) ________ is the language of research.
34) The ________ variable is also known as the outcome variable.
35) The ________ variable is also known as the predictor variable.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
36) Discuss Bayley's offerings for improving criminal justice research.
37) Define pure and applied research and discuss the application of each in the study of criminal justice.
38) Define quantitative and qualitative research and discuss the application of each in the study of criminal justice.
39) Discuss the general steps in empirical research in criminal justice.
40) Explore the many online resources available to students and provide the URL for at least 10 of these sites.