HI I need a grammer and sentence check :
Hexachloroethane is one important chemical that has created environmental issues in various parts of the world. Even human beings are facing challenges. As a result, there is an urgent need to evaluate the different ways and strategies of controlling the compound. This study presents the environmental effects of Hexachloroethane as a toxicant, particularly with its effects on New York State. More specifically, the study focuses on an in-depth analysis of the production of Hexachloroethane, the effects of the compound on the environment and the different ways through which Hexachloroethane can be regulated.
One of the most interesting toxicants that are found in our environment is Hexachloroethane (C2Cl6), as shown in figure 1 below. It is a solid crystalline characterized by a white appearance and camphor-like odor. The compound is a solid at room temperature and can extract water from the atmosphere. In its solid form, Hexachloroethane has military applications which require elicitation of smoke, with the most common being smoke grenades in which hexachloroethane is combined with granular aluminum and zinc oxide (Loh, Chang, Liou, Chang, & Chen, 2006). Other applications of hexachloroethane include the production of lubricants for high-pressure applications, propylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer polymerization, veterinary use as an anthelmintic, rubber accelerator, insecticide, and fungicide formulation, and cellulose ester plasticizer (Wu, 2010). These, and many other applications that are currently being phased out such as its use in the removal of hydrogen bubbles from molten magnesium and aluminum, increase the probability of of people, animals and plants coming into contact with it.
As all the carbon atoms in its structure are occupied by chlorine atoms, hexachloroethane is not reactive under normal circumstances and exists as a white vapor if released into the atmosphere. In addition to lacking functional groups that could react with atmospheric oxidants, hexachloroethane does not contain chromophores and is not affected by direct photolysis from sunlight. Upon being released into the soil, the compound has minimal movement, with the most important fate resulting from release into moist soil in a volatilization reaction based on Henry’s Law (3.89X10-3 atm-cu m/mole) constant. Hexachloroethane does not react in dry soil, and its half-life in aerated sandy soil is estimated to be between 25 and 48 days. In water or groundwater, the compound is absorbed into solids and suspended sediments at 10 degrees Celsius. In groundwater, Hexachloroethane has a half-life of 40 days, which is higher than the half-life in model rivers (pegged at 2 hours) and model lakes (pegged at 4 hours) respectively (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2016). With the compound remaining active for hours, days or weeks after release into the environment, the NCBI (2016) points out that the general population may be exposed to it via the ambient air through inhalation.
Route of Exposure
Hexachloroethane can be either consumed orally or adsorbed through the skin, with oral consumption resulting in little to no toxicity, and most of the adverse effects arising from skin adsorption (Loh, Chang, Liou, Chang, & Chen, 2006). When absorbed through the skin, hexachloroethane usually affects the central nervous system with the primary effect being depression of the system, leading to loss of sensation and severe paralysis. Laboratory tests conducted within 24 to 48 hours after exposure to the compound indicate the presence of either hexachloroethane or carbon tetrachloride (since the body uses it to make hexachloroethane). These tests also show carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Post adsorption through the skin, some hexachloroethane is stored in body fat temporarily, after which it leaves the body through exhalation, urine, and feces.
Molecular Mechanism of Toxicity
Hexachloroethane is not toxic by itself, since it is relatively unreactive, preventing it from interacting with other compounds either in the human body or its immediate environment. However, its most common use as an ingredient in smoke grenades results in it acting not just an irritant, but also a carcinogen (Loh, Chang, Liou, Chang, & Chen, 2006). A hexachloroethane and zinc oxide mixture is ignited in a smoke grenade creating a smoke screen comprised of primarily zinc chloride. The reaction in smoke grenades is usually incomplete and manages to suspend hexachloroethane in the atmosphere, increasing chances of people coming into contact with the compounds.
Figure 4 is a set of data on health effects done in humans and animals by the inhalation,oral as well as the dermal exposure of hexochlorothane. The black dots in the figure present one or more study was associated with that specific effect. In the plasma of exposed humans hexachloroethane was measured but due to the protective equipment the workers had on it was a hard task to relate to the exposure concentrations to plasma level of hexachloroethane. The second chart is a an exposure to hexachloroethane done by the analyze of blood and urine sample in animals. No results identified on the biomarkers of effect in humans. In animals only the kidney and liver effects have been concluded. (Weeks et al.1979)
Consequences of Hexachloroethane
In areas of contact with the compounds, particularly during its absorption, Hexachloroethane causes irritation in various anatomical regions, primarily areas where the skin is not thick enough to prevent easy adsorption. These parts include eyes, parts of the skin and mucous membranes; in addition, when the chemical enters the body through the respiratory system, its irritation leads to coughing. A study done that became endemic in a rat population of a inhalation of 260ppm of hexacholoroethane did effect the respiratory tract mycoplasma infection and at 48 ppm it already caused neurological effects(Weeks et al.1979). In human are results of irritation of the liver and kidney failure if enough of the drug is absorbed into the body; this is because these two organs are not equipped to process the compound. The behavioral consequences are primarily extensions of the other effects presented above; for instance, depression of the CNS leading to mild paralysis presents itself as limited movement on any affected person (Yllner S. 1971). In addition, irritation of the skin, mucous membranes and eyes leads to sweating and tears; these effects may lead to the dehydration in case the exposure is continuous.
As shown earlier, hexachloroethane remains in the environment for some time after exposure; in fact, the compound undergoes half-life decay, which means it cannot be eliminated entirely, and the higher the quantity of compound in the environment, the higher the harm it is likely to cause. With its persistence in the ecosystem, the carcinogenic effects of hexachloroethane can last long after the exposure. Another crucial issue to discuss is its effects on the environment due to the smoke that come from grenades. Hexachloroethane is scientifically produced through the chlorination of the tetrachloroethylene – in the presence of ferric chloride that is comes from smoke grenades. The smoke grenades have been used on various occasions, particularly by the terrorists. In addition, various military operations have also included such strategies of war. The major casualties are the people in the Middle East, especially with Syria being an example (CBC, 2016).
Hexachloroethane, which is used for smoke grenades, is currently being used less due to the toxic byproducts of its use, and its toxic effects on people, animals and the environment. Due to its slow half-life, the compound may remain effective for long periods, but its half-life can be accelerated if its disposal is not done in enclosed water bodies. The two primary effects of hexachloroethane on people is depression of the CNS leading to mild paralysis, and inflammation of mucous membranes. This study therefore opens up the various research attributes that can be explored especially with relations to Hexachloroethane in New York City, especially on the scientific research concerning the