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Question : A small study was conducted on a new procedure for treating atrial fibrillation : 2146843

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Solve the problem.

70) A small study was conducted on a new procedure for treating atrial fibrillation. The study involved a new way to perform ablation surgery. One method currently being used had a success rate of only 50% in preventing additional episodes of atrial fibrillation within one year. The new method of performing ablation surgery was performed on 8 patients and 6 of the 8 patients did not suffer additional episodes of atrial fibrillation within one year. Choose the statement that best summarizes the significance of this result.

A) Although this result may have clinical significance, it does not have statistical significance because the sample size is so small.

B) Many people would say that this result has both clinical and statistical significance because the probability of success increases from 50% to 75% and the result could have significant impact on lives.

C) Although this result may have statistical significance, it does not have clinical significance because the sample was not randomly selected.

D) Although this result may have statistical significance, it does not have clinical significance because the sample size is so small.

71) Which of the following statements are true concerning meta-analysis?

A) A meta-analysis considers all studies done to test a particular treatment and tries to reconcile different conclusions, attempting to determine whether other factors played a role in the reported outcomes.

B) Meta-analysis is used to prove statistical significance but not clinical significance.

C) Meta-analysis is the practice of stating hypotheses after first looking at the data.

D) Meta-analysis is used to prove clinical significance but not statistical significance.

72) Which of the following is not an important principle that should always be kept in mind when reading research articles containing statistical research results?

A) Stick to peer-reviewed journals.

B) Be wary of conclusions based on very complex statistical or mathematical models.

C) Don't rely solely on the conclusions of any single paper.

D) All of these are important principles.

73) Suppose it was reported on the news that a recent study concluded that the probability that you will get brain cancer if you use a cell phone doubled from 1 in 460,000 to 1 in 230,000. Choose the statement that best summarizes the significance of this result.

A) Although this result may have statistical significance, it does not have clinical significance since the probability that you will get brain cancer if you use cell phone is still so small that it is unlikely to have a meaningful effect on lives.

B) Many would say that this result does not have clinical or statistical significance because the probabilities are so small that they are meaningless.

C) Many would say that this result has both clinical and statistical significance because the probability more than doubled and this result could have a significant impact on lives.

D) Although this result may have clinical significance, it does not have statistical significance since the probability that you will get brain cancer if you use a cell phone is still so small that it is unlikely to have a meaningful effect on lives.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

74) Write at least two questions that you should ask yourself when reading articles containing statistical research results. Explain why these questions are important.

75) Suppose it was reported on the news that a recent study concluded that pollutants in the air have dramatically increased our chances of getting a rare form of skin cancer from 1 in 250,000 to 1 in 150,000. Compare the clinical and statistical significance of this result.