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91.Which part of the juxtamedullary nephron responsible for establishing the

Question : 91.Which part of the juxtamedullary nephron responsible for establishing the : 1417262

 

91.Which part of the juxtamedullary nephron is responsible for establishing the vertical osmotic gradient in the medulla of the kidney?

a.collecting duct

b.afferent arteriole

c.loop of Henle

d.juxtaglomerular apparatus

e.distal tubule

92.Select the incorrect statement about ADH.

a.It is also called vasopressin.

b.It is not secreted if the body consumes large amounts of water.

c.It is secreted by the distal tubule.

d.It is secreted if the body fluids become hypertonic.

e.It stimulates reabsorption of water.

93.Which of the following statements about the loop of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons is correct?

a.The ascending limb is freely permeable to H2O and NaCl.

b.The filtrate is isotonic as it enters the loop, hypertonic at the tip of the loop, and hypotonic as it leaves the loop.

c.The descending limb actively transports NaCl out of the tubule into the interstitial fluid.

d.All of the above.

e.None of the above.

94.Which statement is incorrect?

a.Juxtamedullary nephrons establish a vertical osmotic gradient in the medulla.

b.NaCl pumps of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle can establish a 1,200 mOsm/liter difference between ascending and descending limbs at any given location.

c.Countercurrent exchange allows the vasa recta to preserve the vertical osmotic gradient while supplying blood to the medullary tissue.

d.Collecting tubules of all nephrons utilize the driving force of the vertical osmotic gradient to accomplish variable H2O reabsorption under the control of vasopressin.

e.The filtrate is isotonic as it enters the loop of Henle, hypertonic at the tip of the loop of Henle, and hypotonic as it leaves the loop of Henle.

95.Vasopressin

a.secretion is stimulated by a water deficit

b.increases the permeability of the distal and collecting tubules to water

c.promotes the insertion of aquaporins into the membrane of certain tubule cells

d.does not affect tubule cells in the proximal end of the nephron

e.has all of the above characteristics

96.Vasopressin

a.is produced in the hypothalamus

b.increases the permeability of the distal and collecting tubules to water

c.secretion is stimulated by a water deficit in the body

d.promotes water reabsorption

e.has all of the above characteristics

97.Vasopressin

a.can completely halt urine production during periods of water deprivation to conserve water for the body

b.activates the cyclic AMP second-messenger system within the tubular cells

c.renders the distal and collecting tubules impermeable to water

d.increases Na+ reabsorption by the distal portions of the nephron

e.stimulates cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to establish the medullary vertical osmotic gradient

98.Vasopressin secretion

a.induces the kidneys to produce a small volume of concentrated urine

b.is stimulated when the body fluids are hypertonic

c.is inhibited when the arterial blood pressure is dangerously low

d.has characteristics a and b

e.has characteristics b and c

99.The osmoreceptors contributing to water balance are located in the

a.adrenal cortex

b.hypothalamus

c.juxtaglomerular apparatus

d.renal cortex

e.renal medulla

100.The ____ and ____ enable the kidneys to produce urine of varying concentrations and volumes depending on the body's needs.

a.Na+-K+ ATPase pump; co-transport carriers

b.juxtaglomerular apparatus; vasa recta

c.podocytes; peritubular capillaries

d.medullary vertical osmotic gradient; vasopressin

e.renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; renal pyramids

 

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