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91)  Glucocorticoids are released from the

A) anterior pituitary.

B) adrenal medulla.

C) thymus.

D) both A and B

E) none of the above

92)  The most commonly employed physiological measure of stress is the level of circulating

A) glucocorticoids.

B) adrenocorticotropic hormone.

C) norepinephrine.

D) epinephrine.

E) serotonin.

93)  The adrenal cortex was identified by Selye as important in the stress response; today's theories also acknowledge the important contribution of the

A) pituitary.

B) anterior pituitary.

C) parasympathetic nervous system.

D) sympathetic nervous system.

E) thymus.

94)  Stressors produce major increases in the release of

A) norepinephrine from the adrenal cortex.

B) epinephrine from the adrenal cortex.

C) glucocorticoids from the adrenal medulla.

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

95)  An important advance in the study of the physiology of stress came with the discovery in the 1990s that stress triggers the release of __________, which play a role in inflammation and fever.

A) cytokines.

B) glucocorticoids

C) adrenocorticotropic hormones

D) thiamines

E) catecholamines

96)  The relation among chronic fear, stress, and ill health is apparent in animals undergoing

A) predation.

B) attack.

C) subordination stress.

D) social defense.

E) alpha hazing.

97)  Subordination stress is most readily investigated in species that form

A) attack teams.

B) stable dominance hierarchies.

C) social aggression groups.

D) permanent mating bonds.

E) social bonds.

98)  Disorders whose symptoms are primarily physical but whose development is greatly influenced by psychological factors are called

A) psychological disorders.

B) mental disorders.

C) psychiatric disorders.

D) stress disorders.

E) psychosomatic disorders.

99)  Gastric ulcers

A) are lesions to the lining of the stomach and duodenum.

B) are more common in people living in stressful situations.

C) have been produced in experimental animals by exposure to stress.

D) all of the above

E) both A and B

100)  H. pylori has been implicated as a causal factor in

A) gastric ulcers.

B) heart disease.

C) stress.

D) immune dysfunction.

E) brain tumors.

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