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71.Which of the following is one of the steps in the process that managers use to make sense of their changing environments?

a.perceptual re-engagement

b.environmental laddering

c.acting on threats and opportunities

d.creating strategic windows

e.behavioristic relations

72.Managers should NOT use environmental scanning to:

a.reduce uncertainty

b.stay up-to-date on factors in their industry

c.develop and implement their organizational strategies

d.develop and sustain their organizational culture

e.improve organizational performance

73.Kodak makes both camera equipment and paper for printing pictures. Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as a(n) __________ in its external environment if it considered how digital cameras affect sales of cameras that use film. On the other hand, Kodak would view the growing popularity of digital cameras as a(n) __________ in its external environment if it considered the amount of Kodak processing paper used in printing pictures made by digital cameras.

a.strength; weakness

b.risk; certainty

c.opportunity; threat

d.certainty; risk

e.threat; opportunity

74.__________ is designed to aid decision making under conditions of uncertainty.

a.Cognitive mapping

b.Media advocacy

c.A narrow span of management

d.A Gantt chart

e.An internal audit

75.Which of the following statements about cognitive maps is true?

a.Cognitive maps are simplified models of how consumers approach decision making.

b.Cognitive maps summarize the perceived relationships between current customers and potential customers.

c.Cognitive maps are designed to be used only under conditions of very low uncertainty.

d.Cognitive maps may help managers make more effective decisions regarding actions on threats or opportunities.

e.Cognitive maps are often referred to as perceptual maps.

76.The term __________ refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture.

a.managerial environment

b.internal environment

c.company environment

d.general environment

e.organizational structure

77.The __________ is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by organizational members.

a.industry code of ethics

b.internal environment

c.organizational culture

d.organizational strategy

e.organizational vision

78.According to the text, which of the following is NOT a component of the internal environment of an organization?

a.management

b.employees

c.organizational culture

d.organizational strategy

e.customers

79.When Ivory started work at Henderson Textile Co., she was amazed at its employees who would take thirty-minute restroom breaks, leave for the day at 2 p.m., and generally belittle the company’s management. Such employees’ actions most likely developed as a result of a faulty:

a.general environment

b.benchmark

c.response to an opportunity

d.organizational culture

e.formalization strategy

80.Many police agencies experience difficulties when trying to motivate officers to enthusiastically embrace a community policing philosophy. Agencies often start costly community policing programs only to find that few officers actually partake in the transformation while most continue to operate under traditional reactionary modes of law enforcement.  This reluctance to change would reflect the _____ of the police departments.

a.managerial environment

b.internal environment

c.company environment

d.general environment

e.organizational structure

 

 

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