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61. The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of ___________ to conditioning theory.

a) generalization

b) habituation

c) memory loss

d) expectancy

62. Rescorla’s modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ______________.

a) the CS substitutes for the UCS

b) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS

c) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS

63. Which theorist proposed the cognitive perspective of classical conditioning, explaining that it occurs because of expectancy?

a) Pavlov

b) Garcia

c) Rescorla

d) Skinner

64. According to Rescorla’s theory, the CS must ___________ the UCS or conditioning does not occur.

a) replace

b) come after

c) appear simultaneously with

d) predict

65. Some researchers believe that classical conditioning takes place only because:

a) the pairing of the CS and UCS doesn’t provide useful information about the likelihood of occurrence of the UCS.

b) the pairing of the CS and UCR provides useful information about the likelihood of

occurrence of the CS.

c) the pairing of the CS and UCS provides useful information about the likelihood of

occurrence of the UCS.

d) the pairing of the UCS and UCR provides information about the likelihood of occurrence of the UCS.

]

How does operant conditioning occur, and what were the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner?

66. There are two kinds of behavior of which all organisms are capable. If Inez blinks her eyes because a gnat flies close to them, that’s ___________. But if she then swats at the gnat, that’s ___________.

a) voluntary; involuntary

b) involuntary; voluntary

c) operant; instrumental

d) instrumental; classical

67. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called ______________.

a) operant conditioning

b) classical conditioning

c) effective based learning

d) spontaneous recovery

68. Who was one of the first researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses?

a) Pavlov

b) Watson

c) Skinner

d) Thorndike

69. Thorndike was known for his work with ___________.

a) a Skinner box

b) a puzzle box

c) modeling

d) monkeys

70. Skinner was to rats as Thorndike was to ________________.

a) cats

b) rabbits

c) dogs

d) pigeons.

131

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