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41.According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the __________ always use internalized ethical principles to solve ethical dilemmas.

a.amoral level

b.preconventional level

c.unconventional level

d.postconventional level

e.conventional level

42.Which of the following principles of ethical decision making would support the practice of “looking after number one”?

a.the principle of long-term self-interest

b.the principle of personal virtue

c.a discretionary code of ethics

d.a utilitarian code of ethics

e.the equity principle

43.Rotavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that causes only a few deaths in the U.S., but up to 500,000 deaths annually in developing countries.  The vaccine for preventing the disease was proven to cause an extremely rare but serious side effect, so its manufacturer stopped producing it. Which of the following principles of ethical decision making could the pharmaceutical company use to justify its actions?

a.the principle of long-term self interest

b.the principle of utilitarian requirements

c.the principle of distributive justice

d.the principle of community injunctions

e.the principle of personal virtue

44.When Capri Ford became manager of the radio station’s marketing department, the retiring manager told her, “Remember that if you conduct your business as if it were going to be broadcast as news on this radio station, you’ll be true to yourself.” The retiring manager is promoting the principle of:

a.long-term self-interest

b.personal virtue

c.religious injunctions

d.utilitarian benefits

e.government requirements

45.Traditional college students who think about their parents’ and grandparents’ reactions to their decisions before putting the decision into action are more than likely operating according to which principle of ethical decision making?

a.the principle of long-term self-interest

b.the principle of utilitarian requirements

c.the principle of distributive justice

d.the principle of community injunctions

e.the principle of personal virtue

46.Funds for testing the Maxi Cube cargo handling system were written into the fiscal defense budget during the final Senate-House Appropriations conference at the request of Rep. John Murtha of Pennsylvania. The $10 million truck was to be manufactured in Murtha’s home district. The only problem was that the U.S. Army had clearly said that it had “no known requirement” for the truck. In response, Murtha used his position on the Appropriations Committee to freeze a series of military budgeting requests until he got his pet project approved.  Murtha was operating under the principle of:

a.distributive equity

b.long-term self-interest

c.utilitarian benefits

d.discretionary rights

e.government requirements

47.Which of the following statements about the principles of ethical decision making is true?

a.The ideal principle to follow if the principle of distributive justice.

b.If the issue being decided has a high level of ethical intensity, it does not matter what principle the decision maker uses.

c.The ideal principle to follow is the principle of religious injunctions.

d.Adherence to various principles of ethical decision making will give similar results.

e.There is no ideal principle for ethical decision making.

48.Which of the following statements about the principles of ethical decision making is true?

a.If the manager making the decision operates at the postconventional stage of moral development, it will not matter what principle the decision maker uses.

b.A manager acting under the principle of utilitarian benefits would not take an action that would not result in greater good for society.

c.A manager operating at the preconventional stage of morality development would most likely use the principle of distributive justice.

d.The principles of ethical decision making do not consider legality of the act when making an ethical decision.

e.All of these statements about the principles of ethical decision making are true.

49.Woodbury, NY-based East Side Entrees (ESE) provided Florida hurricane victims with nearly a half million servings of aseptic milk for use in disaster areas that lost power.  Because the cost of the donation was offset by the greater good it did for its recipients, you can assume the principle of _____ guided the action of ESE.

a.long-term self-interest

b.personal virtue

c.religious interests

d.utilitarian benefits

e.government requirements

50.British government-backed scientists announced their tests showed the ground water in Bangladesh was safe to drink. Later, the World Health Organization revealed that the ground water supplies in Bangladesh were actually contaminated with arsenic. If the British government admitted it was guilty of harming Bangladesh because it funded the initial research, then its decision to help the country would be an act of compassion and consistent with the principle of:

a.distributive equity

b.discretionary justice

c.national rights

d.religious injunctions

e.government requirements

 

 

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