41.  When experimentalists develop a cover story to keep participants

Question : 41.  When experimentalists develop a cover story to keep participants : 1991654

41.  When experimentalists develop a cover story to keep participants from figuring out the purpose of an experiment and changing their behaviors as a result, the experimenters are responding to what observational researchers call

a.  observational drift.

b.  subject reactivity.

c.  observer bias.

d.  behavioral drift.

42.  Observational researchers Jacob et al. (1994) have suggested that people may not show subject reactivity when researchers study family dynamics because

a.  they are highly motivated to act normally in a research setting.

b.  mature adults are not likely to show reactivity and younger members of the family follow the lead of adults.

c.  there may be little reason for people to change their behaviors because they don’t usually know the researchers and no deep, personal relationships with them.

d.  families with problematic dynamics that lead to subject reactivity are not likely to agree to participate in research.

43.  The tendency of researchers to bring their biases and predispositions to the recording of data is called

a.  reactivity.

b.  observer drift.

c.  lack of interrater reliability.

d.  observer bias.

44.  A researcher who believes in a certain theory may unintentionally record behaviors that provide support for the theory.  This effect is called

a.  observer bias.

b.  observer drift.

c.  behavioral checking.

d.  theoretical reactivity.

445  One way to reduce the effects of observer bias is to create

a.  one/zero sampling.

b.  behavior checklists.

c.  continuous real-time measurement.

d.  particularistic research.

46.  The problem in observational research that resembles the threat to validity called instrumentation in experimental research is

a.  observer bias.

b.  subject reactivity.

c.  observer drift.

d.  ethological bias.

47.  An observational researcher who changes criteria for coding behavior over time is showing

a.  observer bias.

b.  subject reactivity.

c.  cluster sampling.

d.  observer drift.

48.  When two different researchers code the same behavior in the same setting, they

a.   can assess interobserver reliability.

b.  can rely on subjective criteria for coding.

c.  may eliminate systematic training of observers.

d.  reduce the likelihood of subject reactivity.

49.  The extent of observer drift can be reduced by

a.  removing interobserver reliability checks.

b.  retraining observers periodically.

c.  keeping the same pair of observers as a team.

d.  using subjective criteria for coding.

50.  Which of the following is true regarding Humphreys’s (1975) secret observational research on same-sex sexual activity in restrooms of a public park?

a.  It has been argued that the research was not ethically troublesome because the sexual behavior was not really private because the men would engage in the behavior with anybody who was there.

b.  In spite of the strategies by Humphreys to keep the men’s identities secret, some of the names leaked and were made public.

c.  The research was unethical because Humphreys agreed to act as a lookout, but he observed them and collected data instead.

d.  Researchers agree that Humphreys overreacted when he kept the identities of the men and the data in another state so the police wouldn’t be able to get that information.

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