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41.  Kellett and Beall (1997) were treating a woman with suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after an automobile accident.  They obtained baseline measurements on frequency of nightmares, intensity of nightmares, and time to recover from a nightmare.  They treated the woman, then obtained measurements of the same variables.  This design illustrates

a.  an ABABAB design.

b.  a retrospective design.

c.  a withdrawal design.

d.  a multiple baseline study.

42.  Single-subject research that involves a series of measurements of a dependent variable during periods when a treatment is applied and also when the treatment is not given could be classified as

a.  an N of 1 randomized clinical trial.

b.  a multiple baseline design.

c.  a trend study.

d.  a panel study.

43.  If a patient has a problem that is chronic but stable and a treatment has a quick effect on a single dependent variable and a rapid cessation when the treatment is withdrawn, a reasonable research design in a single-subject approach is

a.  a multiple baseline design.

b.  an N of 1 randomized clinical trial.

c.  a panel study.

d.  a cohort-sequential study.

44.  Bleiberg et al. (1993) studied a man who had experienced brain injury in a motorcycle accident.  The researchers administered one drug on days 1 and 4, a different drug on days 3 and 5, and a placebo on day 2 in a double-blind procedure.  Such a plan illustrates

a.  a multiple baseline design.

b. a panel study.

c.  an N of 1 randomized clinical trial.

d.  a cohort-sequential study.

45.  Single-case experiments are useful when a researcher

a.  does not need extensive information about the participant.

b.  a researcher wants to avoid generating or testing hypotheses.

c.  wants to be able to generalize results to people other than the participant.

d.  is investigating rare phenomena.

46.  Single-case experiments are desirable when a researcher

a.  wants to assess therapeutic or intervention techniques.

b.  the behaviors being studied are common to many people.

c.  does not want to gather extensive information about a person or a phenomenon.

d.  believes that there is a strong possibility that the results will be influenced by cohort effects.

47.  If a researcher is interested in gathering extensive behavior about a person, a useful research design is

a.  a trend study.

b.  a single-case experiment.

c.  a cohort study.

d.  a cross-sectional design.

48.  The most notable weakness of single-subject designs is

a.  they are not useful for generating hypotheses that can be tested with larger groups.

b.  they are not helpful in studying rare phenomena.

c.  the results from such designs may not be generalizable to others.

d.  they are susceptible to cohort effects.

49.  Single-case experiments are misunderstood by some researchers, who think that such experiments

a.  are only variations on the cohort-sequential design.

b.  are stronger in both internal and external validity compared to group studies.

c.  are more objective than group studies.

d.  do not provide quantitative data that can be analyzed statistically.

50.  Investigations that focus on a single individual in great detail are called

a.  case studies.

b.  panel studies.

c.  trend studies.

d.  prospective studies.

51.  If you completed an in-depth study of a successful student musician to see his or her motivations, desires, problems, etc., a good design would be a

a.  single-case experiment.

b.  case study.

c.  quasi-experimental study.

d.  panel study.

52.  If a researcher studied an individual by examining diaries, conducting interviews, and asking for retrospective accounts in order to understand the person, that researcher would be conducting

a.  an experiment.

b.  a quasi-experiment.

c.  a trend study.

d.  a case study.

53.  The use of systematic observations free of prior hypotheses and collection of facts, followed by the an integration of the ideas refers to

a.  grounded theory.

b.  retrospective research.

c.  cohort effects.

d.  randomized clinical trials.

54.  The state of Vermont tried to anticipate the degree to which middle- and high-school students contemplated suicide.  The state collected data from students in 1993, 1995, and 1997.  This approach reflects

a.  a cohort study.

b.  a trend study.

c.  a cross-sectional study.

d.  a retrospective study.

55.  Cytowic (1993) wrote a book called The man who tasted shapes, which described a single person who experiences a stimulus with multiple senses (e.g., both taste and touch)  where we would experience only one (e.g., taste).  This approach illustrates a

a.  single-case experiment.

b.  quasi-experimental study.

c.  case study.

d.  panel study.

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