41. If a person completing a psychological inventory, but continues : 1991673
41. If a person is completing a psychological inventory, but continues to misinterpret questions and respond in ways the psychologist isn’t prepared for, there will be an issue of
a. the interpretation paradox.
b. hypothetical constructs.
d. construct validity.
42. In order to make sure that test questions have the same meaning in English and in another language into which it is translated, a psychologist might have the test translated to the second language, then back into English to see if the meaning has stayed the same. This process is called
a. back translation.
b. hypothetical construction.
d. content validation.
43. When a test is successfully back translated, it
a. can be re-translated into virtually any new language.
b. retains the same meaning in the initial language and the language into which it is translated.
c. will have validity with respect to cross-cultural norms.
d. cannot be forwarded translated afterward.
44. When a test is used for a population for which it was not initially created,
a. there is little chance that psychologists will be able to determine if it can be used with new populations.
b. it can be used successfully with new populations if it shows high test-retest reliability.
c. new norms have to be developed for each new population that will use it.
d. psychologists have to avoid back translation of the test.
45. Research on diagnoses of people from different cultures has revealed that
a. diagnoses tend to be valid if a psychologist uses the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM).
b. cultural effects are minimized if diagnoses are based on objective criteria.
c. stereotypes on the part of psychologists could influence the diagnoses of their clients.
d. the diagnoses are valid for virtually all Americans and Europeans, but not for Asians and Africans.
46. Iwamasa et al. (2000) studied differences in stereotypical female and male behaviors and found that
a. there are really few consistent differences in behaviors across genders, even though many people perceive differences.
b. the differences in math and verbal performances between women and men are consistently large.
c. the stereotypes about male and female differences are true for most high school and college students.
d. stereotypically female behaviors were associated with certain disorders and stereotypically male behaviors were associated with other disorders.
47. If women and men participate in a study on mathematics performance, we might expect that women would do as well as men on math problems if
a. the women and men are tested in same-sex groups.
b. the researcher points out that the women should disregard the stereotype that women are not as proficient because it isn’t true.
c. the investigator treats sex differences in math performance with gentle humor.
d. the women are strongly encouraged to do their best on the math problems.
48. If a patient is not able to read or write, a diagnosis about mental functioning
a. is going to be unreliable because there are no tests of functioning that don’t rely on reading and verbal responses.
b. can be difficult because illiterate people do not classify objects the same way as people do who are literate.
c. people who can’t read or write have poor memories for events they experienced in the remote past.
d. tends to underestimate problems in cognitive functioning.
49. Problems with racial classification in research have occurred because
a. people often do not report their race correctly on self-report inventories.
b. there is more genetic diversity in European people than in African people, which is not reflected in the racial categories.
c. differences between people on factors associated with race are on a continuum and don’t lend themselves to discrete categories.
d. researchers have used the wrong biological traits in racial classifications in most research.
50. In the discussions of female-male differences in math ability, researchers
a. have tended not to publish the studies showing female superiority.
b. measured hormonal differences between women and men and found that the hormones played a part in the higher scores of men.
c. discovered that if women are tested with men, the women use the situation competitively to raise their math performance.
d. have reported that the differences between sexes is, on average, small and is getting smaller.