41. How did the European concept of slavery differ from : 1987721
41. How did the European concept of slavery differ from the African?
A) Slaves of Europeans could be absorbed into mainstream society.
B) European slavery was permanent but not hereditary.
C) Europeans did not work their slaves as hard as the Africans.
D) Slaves of Europeans could attain positions of privilege.
E) Europeans justified slavery through racist ideology.
42. Benin differed from other West African nations with regard to the slave trade because Benin
A) did not resist supplying Europeans with slaves.
B) discontinued its involvement in the slave trade.
C) traded exclusively with the Spanish.
D) acquired its slaves only from its own population.
E) traded its slaves only for goods, not for money.
43. According to the text, Benin’s decision with regard to the slave trade
A) motivated the Portuguese to attack Benin to compel the kingdom to give up men and women as slaves.
B) enabled the kingdom to maintain its political autonomy longer than its neighbors did.
C) inspired neighboring countries to discontinue involvement in the slave trade.
D) stemmed from humanitarian concerns about slavery.
E) effectively cut it off from any trade with Europe.
44. For what purpose did the Spanish bishop Bartolomé de Las Casas write the work known in English as The Tears of the Indians?
A) to entreat other nations to dismantle the Spanish Empire
B) to lament the lost cultures of the Native Americans
C) to encourage the Spanish to convert the Indians to Christianity
D) to critique such Aztec practices as human sacrifice
E) to indict the conquistadores for their cruelty
45. These images from Las Casas’s book portray the Spanish as
B) savagely brutal.
D) acting in self-defense.
E) celebrating victory.
46. As can be seen on the map, which statement is accurate?
A) The nations that explored the Atlantic each took different routes.
B) The Portuguese had no interest in the Americas.
C) War between the English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish was inevitable.
D) European interest in exploration waned after the sixteenth century.
E) The English and French collaborated in exploring North America.
47. Why did France initially send fleets to Newfoundland?
A) to fish for cod
B) to hunt for furs
C) to mine gold
D) to gather lumber
E) to trade for beads
48. The labor system the Spanish used in New Spain differed from the system they had developed in the Caribbean because the system in New Spain
A) did not come under criticism from religious reformers.
B) obliged the Spanish to provide for the laborers’ spiritual welfare.
C) resulted in fewer deaths of indigenous people from disease.
D) involved the enslavement of Indians rather than Africans.
E) was much less exploitive.
49. How did the French encounter with the Native Americans differ from that of the Spanish and Portuguese?
A) The French settlements were much larger than those of Spain and Portugal.
B) The Spanish and Portuguese intermarried with the Native Americans.
C) The French maintained good relations with the Native Americans.
D) The Spanish and Portuguese tried to understand native culture.
E) The French were not interested in religious conversions.
50. Why did the balance of power in the Atlantic shift near the end of the sixteenth century?
A) The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada.
B) The French began to explore and colonize the Americas.
C) The powerful Spanish navy dominated all others.
D) The English developed a new colonial model in Ireland.
E) The French discovered the Northwest Passage to Asia.
51. How did the English and Spanish models of colonization differ?
A) The Spanish traded only within their empire whereas the English sought new trade partners.
B) The English permitted religious freedom but the Spanish did not.
C) The Spanish felt greater economic pressure to explore and colonize.
D) The Spanish repopulated the lands they conquered with their own people.
E) The English expelled the native population whereas the Spanish absorbed it.
52. How did England’s model of exploration and colonization differ from that of France and Spain?
A) The English colonists were not seeking any profit.
B) The English depended on the exploits of privateers.
C) The English monarch granted full financial support.
D) English explorers and colonists relied on private investors.
E) The English did not initially encounter any Indians.
53. All of the following contributed to the failure of the English settlement at Roanoke EXCEPT
A) conflict with the local Indians.
B) the difficulties of reprovisioning it.
C) the prevalence of Spanish raids.
D) its location near Cape Hatteras.
E) the demands of fighting the Spanish Armada.
54. Unlike the painting by John White, the image by Flemish engraver Theodore de Bry
A) was primarily aimed at a Calvinist audience.
B) shows an actual Indian religious ritual.
C) exaggerates the “otherness” of the Indians.
D) displays a broad-minded view of different cultural practices.
E) was intended to be used to convert the Indians.
55. Why was the French Jesuits’ use of religious images to convert the Indians most likely effective?
A) The Indians saw the images as threatening and converted in fear.
B) French painting was far superior to Spanish or English painting.
C) The Indians were impressed with European artistry.
D) The images were more appealing than those with which the Indians were familiar.
E) The images could bypass cultural and linguistic behaviors.