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41.________ is a disorder involving disturbances in emotion, loss of interest in one’s usual activities, thoughts of hopelessness, fatigue, and loss of appetite.

a.Generalized anxiety disorder

b.Major depression

c.Psychopathy

d.Borderline personality disorder

42.In ________, episodes of both depression and mania occur.

a.Borderline personality disorder

b.Antisocial personality disorder

c.Psychotic disorder

d.Bipolar disorder

43.Which of the following is NOT a symptom of mania?

a.Feelings of power

b.Extreme euphoria

c.Impulsive behavior

d.Angry rumination

44.The vulnerability–stress model describes:

a.the interpretation of ambiguous pictures by people.

b.interactions between upsetting events and individual vulnerability that lead to a disorder.

c.diagnostic categories of mental disorders.

d.the behavior of insane people.

45.Biological research concerning the development of mood disorders suggests that:

a.acetylcholine and dopamine may be key neurotransmitters in depression.

b.a long form of the gene 5-HTT may predispose a person to depression.

c.depressed people have high levels of cortisol, which can affect the hippocampus and amygdala.

d.part of the problem of depression is the underproduction of cortisol.

46.Which of the following factors contributes to depression?

a.Losses of important relationships

b.Recurring family quarrels

c.Having a stressful day

d.High self-esteem

47.Depressed people tend to believe that:

a.the reason for their misery is external.

b.this bleak despair is terrible, but it will pass.

c.their misery is permanent and uncontrollable.

d.if they just had the energy, they could control the situation.

48.Cognitive theorists would be most likely to agree that the real problem for depressed people is that:

a.they feel hopeless.

b.they feel manic.

c.they have unsatisfying jobs.

d.they have unsatisfying family lives.

49.Which of the following statements holds true for nondepressed people?

a.They tend to ruminate and brood over things.

b.They believe that their situation is permanent and uncontrollable.

c.They have negative thoughts and perceptions.

d.They are usually able to distract themselves, look outward, and seek solutions.

50.________ involve impairments in personality that cause great distress to an individual or impair his or her ability to get along with others, and the presence of pathological traits such as excessive hostility or callousness.

a.Personality disorders

b.Depressive disorders

c.Anxiety disorders

d.Attention deficit disorders.

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