31.Managers can monitor __________ to track progress toward goal achievement.
a.action plans and their implementation
b.proximal and distal goals
c.one-way and two-way evaluative techniques
d.framing and non-framing goals
e.open-ended and close-ended techniques
32.__________ can help organizations to maintain flexibility as they plan.
b.Learning-based planning and options-based planning
33.The goal of __________ is to keep options open by making small, simultaneous investments in many alternative plans.
34.For options-based planning to work, the organization must:
a.have slack resources
b.use cross-functional teams
c.have broad spans of management
d.have tall organizational structures
35.__________ planning emphasizes learning better ways of achieving goals by continually testing, changing, and improving plans and strategies.
36.The basic purpose of __________ is constant improvement.
e.the establishment of planning windows
37.Planning works best when the goals and action plans at the __________ of the organization support the goals and action plans at the __________ of the organization.
a.bottom and top; middle
b.top and middle; bottom
c.bottom and middle; top
d.group level; individual level
e.staff level; line level
38.Top management is responsible for developing long-term __________ that make clear how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors in the next two to five years.
39.__________ is responsible for developing strategic plans that make clear how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors in the next two to five years.
a.An action team
d.A change agent
40.A(n) __________ is a statement of a company’s purpose or reason for existing.