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31) Which of the following diseases may be reduced by improved public sanitation measures?
A) chickenpox

B) malaria

C) cholera

D) HIV

E) rabies

 

32) Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?
A) incubation, convalescence, prodromal period, illness, decline

B) prodromal period, convalescence, incubation, illness, decline

C) illness, convalescence, incubation, prodromal period, decline

D) incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence

E) convalescence, incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline

 

33) Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at daycare in the morning and the other child attends the daycare facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within a day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?
A) droplet transmission

B) vertical transmission

C) direct contact transmission

D) fomite transmission

E) vector transmission

 

34) Treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of nosocomial infection?
A) endogenous infection

B) exogenous infection

C) latent infection

D) zoonosis

E) iatrogenic disease

 

35) Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is correct?
A) Gram-positive bacteria and lipid A

B) Staphylococcus aureus and neurotoxin

C) Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M

D) Neisseria gonorrhoeae and endotoxin

E) Escherichia coli and cytotoxin

 

36) A pathogen is best described as
A) a source of microbial contamination.

B) an organism that remains in the body for a short time.

C) a microorganism that may cause a disease under certain circumstances.

D) any microorganism that causes disease.

E) a microorganism that remains with the person throughout life.

 

37) Microbes known as transient microbiota are
A) microorganisms that may cause a disease under certain circumstances.

B) unsuccessful microbial invaders because of the presence of preexisting microbes.

C) microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.

D) sources of microbial contamination.

E) organisms that remain in the body for a short time.

 

38) The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the
A) type of microbe that causes the disease.

B) organs or organ systems affected by the disease.

C) type of host for the microbe.

D) means of transmission.

E) severity and duration of the disease.

 

39) Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as
A) organisms that remain in the body for a short time.

B) microorganisms that never cause disease.

C) microorganisms that may cause a disease under certain circumstances.

D) any microorganisms that cause disease.

E) microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.

 

40) A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be taken by public health agencies to stop the spread?
A) Facilitate access to vaccines.

B) Identify and treat people who are infected.

C) Shut down public transportation.

D) Educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.

E) Educate members of the public about ways to protect themselves.

 

41) Commensalism is best described as a(n) A) relationship in which a microorganism causes disease.

B) source of contamination.

C) relationship between two organisms where both members benefit.

D) unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.

E) relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits and the other is unharmed.

 

42) The condition called parasitism is characterized as a(n) A) relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits and the other is unharmed.

B) unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.

C) relationship between two organisms where both members benefit.

D) nonsymbiotic relationship.

E) relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.

 

43) An axenic environment is one
A) that is free of microbes.

B) in which microorganisms remain with the person throughout life.

C) contaminated by microbial toxins.

D) that is a source of contamination.

E) in which microorganisms remain present only for a short time.

 

44) The condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as
A) a relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits.

B) microorganisms that remain with a person throughout life.

C) a relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.

D) an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.

E) a relationship between two organisms where both members benefit.

 

45) A reservoir is
A) a source of microbes for laboratory testing.

B) any microorganism that causes disease.

C) an environment that is free of microbes.

D) a condition in which organisms remain in the body for a short time.

E) a source of microbial contamination.

 

 

 

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