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31.  In observational research, using a small number of long

Question : 31.  In observational research, using a small number of long : 1991653

31.  In observational research, using a small number of long observation times rather multiple, short intervals is called

a.  cluster sampling.

b.  one/zero sampling.

c.  time-point sampling.

d.  time-interval sampling.

32.  In naturalistic observation, the practice of dichotomous recording whether a behavior occurs or not constitutes

a.  cluster sampling.

b.  one/zero sampling.

c.  continuous real-time sampling.

d.  time-interval sampling

33.  Zinner et al. (1997) observed the locomotion, grooming, approach, and threat behavior of baboons by simply recording whether a target behavior occurs or does not occur in an observation interval.  Such recording is called

a.  cluster sampling.

b.  continuous real-time sampling.

c.  one-zero sampling.

d.  time-interval sampling.

34.  A limitation of one/zero sampling is that it

a.  underestimates the amount of time an animal engages in a behavior.

b.  overestimates how frequently a given behavior occurs.

c.  with long intervals of observation, behaviors within that time are often independent of one another.

d.  its reliability decreases as the sampling interval increases.

35.  Walker et al’s (1993) research with ethological coding among children

a.  revealed that preschizophrenic children showed some of the same abnormal patterns of facial expression that occur after schizophrenic symptoms appear.

b.  led to the finding that schizophrenics seldom had ethological profiles that resembled those of people in a control group.

c.  showed that behaviors that were similar, like smiling versus grinning, were hard to differentiate reliably.

d.  led to extensive use of ethological approaches in clinical research.

36.  One of the reasons that psychiatric researchers use randomized clinical (experimental) trials rather than ethological approaches is that

a.  randomized clinical trials involve more extensive monitoring of patients’ behaviors.

b.  randomized clinical trials require about ten percent of the time that ethological approaches would require.

c.  researchers can use cluster sampling with randomized clinical trials but not with ethological approaches.

d.  ethological approaches are less useful with people than experimental approaches are.

37.  Which of the following statements is true regarding the ethics of observational research with people who are unaware of being observed.

a.  Observing public behaviors that involved manipulated variables poses no ethical problems.

b.  Studying private behaviors without the person’s awareness is acceptable only if the person is informed after the study is completed.

c.  It is hard to decide whether it is ethical to observe normally private behaviors conducted in a public place.

d.  Observation of public behaviors involving manipulation of variables does not need approval from an Institutional Review board.

38.  If people are observed by a researcher who has joined their organization in order to be able to study them, the researcher must

a.  consider the possibility that there may be an invasion of privacy even if the people engage in lawful public behavior.

b.  get informed consent for studying any behavior members engage in while part of the group.

c.  get approval from an Institutional Review Board even if the people in the group know they are being observed.

d.  consider whether deceiving participants about his or her membership in the group might put group members at risk if they discovered that a friendship has been based on deception.

39.  The tendency for people who are observed to act differently than normal because they know they are being observed is called

a.  subject reactivity.

b.  observational drift.

c.  observer bias.

d.  anthropomorphism.

40.  In the original studies that led to naming of the Hawthorne effect, if workers’ behaviors were not normal because they knew they were being observed, this would have reflected

a.  observational drift.

b.  subject reactivity.

c.  observer bias.

d.  behavioral drift.

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