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31)  Developmentalists have suggested that differences in the expectations parents have for boys and girls may be responsible for

A) weaker standards of behavior for boys in later developmental periods.

B) stronger standards of behavior for girls in later developmental periods.

C) stronger standards of behavior for boys in later developmental periods.

D) weaker standards of behavior for girls in later developmental periods.

32)  During the later years of middle childhood, the key element of children's friendships becomes

A) having a good time together.

B) similar social and cultural backgrounds.

C) reciprocal trust.

D) complementary abilities.

33)  If you ask a preschooler how people make friends, which of the following answers are you likely to receive?

A) "They have similar interests."

B) "They like each other."

C) "They play together."

D) "Boys only play with boys."

34)  Which of the following seems to be the most important factor in selection of friends among 6 - 12 year olds?

A) Age

B) Socio-economic similarity

C) Race

D) Gender

35)  Which of the following would you likely see in a typical "boundary violation" between children's play groups in middle childhood?

A) A girl will exit her friendship group as a result of a quarrel or hurt feelings.

B) A child will be accepted into a play and friendship group of children of the other gender for an extended period of time.

C) Best-friend pairs terminate their friendship bonds and re-form into new groups of friends.

D) A brief interaction, such as a "chasing game," will cause one gender-segregated group to breach the barrier of the other gender-segregated group.

36)  A group of girls were playing jump-rope when a couple of boys ran in and grabbed their rope yelling, "You can't catch us!"  The girls laughed and gave chase, retrieving the rope - to the delight of both the boys and girls.  This is an example of which of the following?

A) Dominance-seeking

B) A boundary violation

C) Social conflict

D) Cross-gender pickets

37)  Which of the following is an accurate description of female-male differences in middle childhood friendships?

A) Boys' friendship groups are smaller than girls' friendship groups.

B) Boys spend more time playing indoors or near home or school.

C) Girls' friendship groups are more accepting of newcomers than are boys' friendship groups.

D) Girls are more likely to play in pairs or in small, fairly exclusive groups.

38)  Which of the following is an accurate description of female-male differences in friendships in middle childhood?

A) Friendships between boys include more agreement and compliance than girls' friendships.

B) Girls' friendships have higher levels of competition and rejection than boys' friendships.

C) School-age boys are more competitive with strangers than with friends.

D) Boys are more likely to use "controlling" speech in their interactions with their friends.

39)  Of the following, which is an example of controlling speech used among middle childhood boys?

A) "I can help."

B) "Why are you so mean?"

C) "Can you fix this?"

D) "Try to stop me."

40)  Rejecting comments, manipulation, ordering, challenging, or defiance all define which of the following?

A) Rudeness

B) Controlling speech

C) Bullying

D) Male-dominated play

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