31. According to psychologist Stanley Sue (1999) cultural research sometimes : 1991672
31. According to psychologist Stanley Sue (1999) cultural research is sometimes limited because
a. it is difficult for researchers to distinguish between etics and emics.
b. many investigators may have difficulty finding participants from different cultural groups.
c. using students of different cultural groups has been shown to lead to invalid results.
d. the content validity of results makes generalization difficult.
32. According to the Council of National Psychological Associations, investigators conducting cultural research should note that
a. the differences across cultural groups are usually much larger than the differences within groups.
b. developing test norms for a new culture is often costly and is not worth the cost most of the time because the norms change slowly.
c. understanding the degree of acculturation of participants is critical to interpreting results.
d. it is most useful to develop a single interpretation of research results and to avoid the complication of seeking alternate explanations.
33. The Council of National Psychological Associations address some important issues in cultural research. The Council has suggested that
a. cultural biases affect translations of tests, so it is preferable to use a test in its original language.
b. within a given cultural community, there is likely to be little difference among people regarding linguistic and communication styles.
c. detailed knowledge of a cultural group is not critical if objective measurement instruments are used in research.
d. it is helpful to request help in interpreting research results from members of the community being studied.
34. Cultural researchers who studied reactions to photographs by Indian participants who responded either in English or in Hindi. They discovered that
a. when participants spoke in Hindi, they recognized emotions in the pictures with less accuracy than when they responded in English.
b. responses in both languages were comparable, indicating that participants should be tested in their native language.
c. neither language led to accuracy in identifying emotions in pictures, but when the emotions were presented in verbal form, English led to more accuracy.
d. when Hindi speakers responded in English, they performed better than when English speakers responded in Hindi.
35. Matsumoto and Assar (1992) tested participants who spoke English and Hindi on their abilities to recognize emotions of people in photographs. They concluded that
a. the participants were engaged in the same types of mental processing regardless of language.
b. the participants’ thought processes were more conducive to thinking about emotions when they spoke English.
c. speakers of English had less willingness to deal with the emotions depicted in the photographs.
d. the same ideas and emotions are expressed easily in either language.
36. Cross cultural research with speakers of different languages has revealed that
a. mental processes are comparable regardless of what language is used, supporting the universalist concept of cognitive processing.
b. people speaking different languages process information the same way but engage in different behaviors based on the language spoken.
c. the language a person speaks may affect not only what the person thinks, but also how thought processes proceed.
d. the speed of responding to language differs according to which language is being spoken.
37. When researchers studied the memories of Chinese and of American students, the results showed that
a. the Chinese students performed better on visuo-spatial tasks than American students.
b. English students had an advantage on some numerical tasks because number words in English are shorter than those in Chinese.
c. Chinese students had less ability to deal with emotional words than Americans did.
d. Americans did not remember their own behaviors as reliably as Chinese students did.
38. Attachment theory has been developed as a universally valid theory. Researchers studying the theory have discovered that
a. behaviors associated with attachment in one culture may be seen as appropriate but, in another culture, may be seen as inappropriate.
b. babies in the America and Europe show less secure attachment than babies in collectivist societies.
c. parents in most modern societies tend to view behaviors associated with attachment the same way.
d. the theory is valid across cultures because it has been studied to a great extent across many different cultures.
39. If American research participants were asked to identify the emotion in a facial photograph and rate its intensity, the results might be hard to interpret because
a. there is little agreement on what behaviors are associated with different emotions.
b. Americans of different cultural backgrounds show similar responses to some emotions but different responses to others.
c. people often label the emotion depicted in a photograph very differently and with little consistency.
d. people from different parts of the country label emotions in consistently different ways.
40. The question of whether items on a test relates to the material being tested is an issue of
a. interpretation paradox.
b. hypothetical constructs.
c. content validity.