21.Specialized jobs are generally inefficient.
22.Job enlargement and job enrichment mean essentially the same thing.
23.According to the What Really Works, “The Job Characteristics Model: Making Jobs More Interesting and Motivating,” jobs rich with the five core job characteristics are more satisfying to workers who possess an individual characteristic called growth need strength.
24.According to the What Really Works, “The Job Characteristics Model: Making Jobs More Interesting and Motivating,” absenteeism may be reduced by increasing levels of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback in a job.
25.Task significance is the degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish the job.
26.An organic organization is characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibility, loosely defined, frequently changing roles, and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge.
27.In reciprocal interdependence, work must be performed in succession because one group or job’s outputs become the inputs for the next group or job.
28.Empowerment can lead to changes in organizational processes because meaning, competence, impact, and self-determination produce empowered employees who take active rather than passive roles in their work.
29.Vail Horton, the co-founder and CEO of Keen Mobility, likes to glide along the hallway of his company’s headquarters on his wooden skateboard, checking in with employees who might need an extra jolt of encouragement or a laugh with their morning coffee. From this information, you can surmise that the company operates in an atmosphere of behavioral informality.
30.Casual dress policies and open office systems are two methods for increasing behavioral formality.