21. The idea that, in discussion of culture, behavioral phenomena : 1991671
21. The idea that, in discussion of culture, behavioral phenomena can be understood only within the culture in which they occur relates to
a. the interpretation paradox.
d. back translation.
22. The concept that internal, psychological processes may be universal but that they are expressed differently across cultures is associated with
d. ethnic constructs.
23. Van de Vijver and Leung (2000) have noted that in cultural research
a. investigators need to generalize more from their results than they are currently willing to do.
b. differences across cultural groups involving tests translated into different languages seldom reflect important differences.
c. equivalent samples are generally easier to generate in research involving ethnicity than in research involving race.
d. some differences in behavior may be pronounced but do not relate to important underlying psychological processes.
24. In cross-cultural research, large differences are easy to spot but hard to interpret, whereas small differences are hard to spot but easy to interpret. This problem reflects the concept of
a. interpretation paradox
c. hypothetical constructs.
d. content validity.
25. In the United States, if a person has any black or African ancestry, that person is not considered white. This illustrates the concept of
a. racial constructs.
26. The concept of race is controversial scientifically because
a. the social history of the races has always been troublesome.
b. the genetic differences between some races is larger than it is between other races.
c. depending on the categorization process used, an individual could be placed in different racial categories.
d. scientists have not been able to determine exactly where the different races fall on the racial continuum.
27. The arguments by scientists who believe that racial categories are natural, not social, categories include the idea that
a. the genetic difference between races is over 10% across all races.
b. there was a sufficient length of time for the different races to become geographically separated and to become genetically different.
c. the recent Human Genome Project has identified distinctly different genes that do not overlap across racial groups.
d. differences in average brain sizes across racial groups match differences in measurements of intelligence.
28. The increase in the average IQ of nations over the past few decades, known as the Flynn effect,
a. appears to be an artifact of measurement with inappropriate tests of intelligence.
b. seems to be a result of environmental factors such as better nutrition and better access to education.
c. has become larger in developed Western countries and has reverse in underdeveloped countries.
d. is the result of a complex combination of genetic factors.
29. Historically, the research on differences in intelligence scores across races was problematic. According to Stephen Jay Gould, in Samuel George Morton’s nineteenth century research on skull sizes and intelligence, Morton
a. created his sample of skulls in a way that guaranteed that he would find what he expected to find.
b. knew that his methodology was flawed, so he altered his data to reflect what he thought was true.
c. kept poor records, so nobody could contest his findings.
d. accurately measured skulls sizes of people of European and Asian descent, but he consistently underestimated the skull sizes of people of African descent.
30. Recent analysis of the work of Samuel George Morton’s nineteenth century research on skull sizes and intelligence has indicated that
a. he overestimated the intelligence of all the groups he studied.
b. he underestimated the intelligence of all the groups he studied.
c. his methodology was so flawed that measurements of brain size were completely invalid.
d. his research did not have the flaws that Stephen Jay Gould claimed it had.