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21.  If a researcher monitored how long a person kept

Question : 21.  If a researcher monitored how long a person kept : 1991652

21.  If a researcher monitored how long a person kept smiling or laughing after seeing a person slip on a banana peel, the data collection would involve

a.  time-point sampling.

b.  time-interval sampling.

c.  continuous real-time sampling.

d.  cluster sampling.

22.  When a researcher randomly selects a set of times and observes whether a behavior of interest is occurring at that moment, the data collection involves

a.  cluster sampling.

b.  time-interval sampling.

c.  continuous real-time sampling.

d.  time-point sampling.

23.  In observational research, a behavior of interest might occur only intermittently.  If an investigator wanted to estimate the frequency of the behavior by taking a snapshot at random times, the approach would involve

a.  time-point sampling.

b.  cluster sampling.

c.  continuous real-time sampling.

d.  time-interval sampling.

24.  If a researcher observes whether a behavior of interest occurs during short, randomly selected intervals, the approach to data collection is

a.  continuous real-time sampling.

b.  time-interval sampling.

c.  cluster sampling.

d.  time-point sampling.

25.  If a researcher set up a video camera to record behavior so that at random times, the camera began recording for one minute, the investigator could later see whether behavior of interest occurred during the recorded intervals.  This approach to data collection would involve

a.  cluster sampling.

b.  continuous real-time sampling.

c.  time-interval sampling.

d.  time-point sampling.

26.  When Moore (1998) investigated how many blocks of observations are required to get an accurate picture of how often the critical behavior occurred, he found that

a.  when randomly selected, only 2 to 4 8-minute blocks are necessary for high levels of accuracy.

b.  there were few differences in accuracy for 4 to 16 8-minute blocks.

c.  the accuracy peaked at about 10 8-minute blocks and fell with larger numbers of observations.

d.  a large number of observations (up to 30 8-minute blocks)) produced notably greater accuracy than 4, 8, 12, or 16.

27.  Moore (1998)  found that 30 blocks of 8-minute observations produced an accurate picture of how often behaviors occurred in a research setting.  Researchers Odom and Ogawa (1992) found that in observational research

a.  investigators occasional use as few as six minutes of observation.

b.  random sampling of times produces accurate results with as little as 10 minutes of observation.

c.  most researchers have standardized their work using about 25 10-minute blocks.

d.  the behaviors studied are usually stable, requiring as little as 10 minutes for accuracy.

28.  One way to increase the likelihood that behaviors of interest in observational research are representative of behaviors in general is to

a.  observe a few behaviors at great length.

b.  take a random sample of behaviors at different times and places.

c.  use universalistic research techniques.

d.  create a comprehensive behavior checklist for observers to use.

29.  Peregrine et al. (1993) monitored touching behavior of children.  They found that they could get an accurate picture of the extent of children’s touching behavior

a.  through systematic sampling.

b.  by using only continuous real-time sampling.

c.  by establishing the observation period and randomly sampling during about 10 percent of the time.

d.  by deciding on a single activity and observing touching whenever the children engaged in that activity.

30.  Observational research that uses cluster sampling involves

a.  picking a subset of people to observe over an extended period of time.

b.  identifying the most important time periods for behavior and collecting data during those times.

c.  identifying critical behaviors to monitor and focusing on those behaviors.

d.  picking a number of starting time for extended observation and monitoring behaviors over a predetermined time interval rather than using more, shorter intervals.

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