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21.  A study that relies on participants’ memories of what already happened is called a

a.  longitudinal study.

b.  cohort study.

c.  retrospective study.

d.  panel study.

22.  If you asked research participants now how they responded to a traumatic event in the past, you would need to use a

a.  longitudinal design.

b.  cohort design.

c.  cross-sectional design.

d.  retrospective design.

23.  To find out if using night lights affected the development of nearsightedness, a group of researchers asked parents whether their teen-aged children had slept with night lights on as infants.  This research illustrates a

a. retrospective design.

b.  cohort design.

c.  cross-sectional design.

d.  longitudinal design.

24.  One of the problems with retrospective designs is that they

a.  are only useful in identifying cohort effects.

b.  rely on people’s memories, which can be faulty.

c.  require longer than other studies as participants are observed over time.

d.  combine the weaknesses of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies.

25.  Longitudinal research that calls for identifying participants in a study and following them into the future involves a

a.  withdrawal design.

b.  cohort design.

c.  prospective design.

d.   cross-sectional design.

26.  La Greca et al. (1996) studied a group of children who lived through a severe hurricane in order to document the extent to which they experienced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).  The researchers obtained measurements at 3, 7, and 10 months after the hurricane.  Such research involves a

a.  withdrawal design.

b.  cohort design.

c.   cross-sectional design.

d.  prospective design.

27.  If you want to study people over time but don’t want to rely on people’s memories for past behaviors, you should use a

a.  prospective study.

b.  cohort study.

c.  withdrawal study.

d.  cross-sectional study.

28.  The single largest methodological concern in longitudinal studies is

a.  cohort effects.

b.  attrition.

c.  trend effects.

d.  retrospective errors.

29.  When La Greca et al. (1996) studied children over a period of 10 months after they had gone through a severe hurricane, they examined the effect of attrition.  They discovered that

a.  their results were severely compromised because the most severely affected children dropped out of the study.

b.  over half of the children dropped out of the study by the end.

c.  although there was about 20 percent attrition, those who dropped out of the study didn’t seem to differ from those who remained.

d.  they could reduce attrition by waiting until the children stabilized after the hurricane so those who remained didn’t drop out of the study.

30.  Wutzke et al. (2000) studied ways to reduce attrition in longitudinal research on heavy drinkers.  They found that they could reduce attrition by

a.  promising the participants total confidentiality and anonymity in their participation.

b.  increasing internal motivation rather than relying on incentives to the participants.

c.  maintaining a strict policy of participation in order to establish routines for participation.

d.  maintaining contact throughout the project by sending birthday cards or regular newsletters.

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