2.1-141.After carefully observing thousands of students, Dr. O’Brien revealed to
2.1-141.After carefully observing thousands of students, Dr. O’Brien revealed to his colleagues that students with brown eyes are statistically more likely to write with pens instead of pencils. Although his colleagues did not question his statistics, they did suggest that a finding such as this lacked
2.1-142.A therapist wishes to show that his new therapy is a marked improvement over the current best available therapy. To do so he examines the number of participants who improved with each. A total of 125 participants received his treatment (and 100 of them improved). A total of 80 participants received the alternative treatment (and 64 of them improved). What should the therapist conclude?
a.His treatment is superior to the alternative because 100 is greater than 64.
b.His treatment is no better than the alternative because the percentages are the same.
c.His treatment is inferior because the percentages are the same.
d.His treatment is superior because it included 125 people as opposed to 80.
2.1-143.The peer review process is designed to
a.block alternative therapies from being made available to the general public.
b.identify flaws in a research study’s methods, findings, and conclusions.
c.keep in check the egos of researchers.
d.place obstacles in front of people whose theories differ from mainstream science.
2.1-144.A mechanism by which experts in a field carefully screen the work of their colleagues is known as
b.experimenter bias effect.
2.1-145.The purpose of a peer reviewer is to act as
a critical thinker.
d.a scientific gatekeeper.
2.1-146.The general public is often misled by discussions of research in the media because most reporters are
a.not fair and balanced in their reporting of the facts.
b.actively working to bias the public against scientific research.
c.not trained in understanding research or how to accurately communicate about it.
d.lazy and attempting to do as little as possible in their jobs.
2.1-147.A major limitation in reading about the results of psychological research in the newspaper is that reporters
a.provide too much detailed information about the research study that the general public cannot comprehend.
b.are so well trained to discuss research that they cannot easily communicate about it with the average lay person.
c.create controversy where none exists by treating scientific evidence and dissenters’ biased opinions as equally compelling.
d.do not know how to identify experts to interview for many of their stories and end up unintentionally misleading the public.
2.1-148.Professor Bowden is in the middle of her lecture on marital satisfaction when a student in the back interrupts her and says, “Dr. Phil doesn’t agree with that theory!” Soon other students chime in to add fuel to the discussion. Professor Bowden just smiles and asks the original student to produce the research that Dr. Phil carried out to justify his statements. What lesson is Professor Bowden trying to teach?
a.Information from the media is always inaccurate.
b.One should never question a well-established theory.
c.Always check the source of your information before you believe it.
d.Secondary sources are just as reliable as primary sources.
2.1-149.A key behavior to engage in when reading about the results of a study on the Internet, in a newspaper, or in a news magazine is
a.to consider the source of the information.
b.to determine how well it fits with what others have told you in the past.
c.to rely on your common sense or “gut” intuition.
d.none of the above
% correct 90 a = 90 b = 0 c = 10 d = 0 r = .21