21) ________ the inner state that causes an individual to

Question : 21) ________ the inner state that causes an individual to : 1414473


21) ________ is the inner state that causes an individual to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal.

A) Cognitive dissonance

B) Motivation

C) Socialization

D) Leadership

E) Emotion

22) ________ is an explanation of motivation that emphasizes how individuals are motivated.

A) A content theory of motivation

B) Behavior modification theory

C) A process theory of motivation

D) ERG theory

E) Theory X

23) Content theories of motivation ________.

A) are explanations that emphasize peoples' internal characteristics

B) are explanations that emphasize how individuals are motivated

C) include the needs-goal theory and the Vroom expectancy theory of motivation

D) include Skinner's work on behavior modification

E) can collectively be used to identify all human needs

24) Which of the following is a process theory of motivation?

A) Porter-Lawler theory

B) Alderfer's ERG theory

C) Maslow's hierarchy of needs

D) McClelland's acquired needs theory

E) Argyris's maturity-immaturity continuum

25) Which of the following theories describe how motivation occurs?

A) Maslow's hierarchy of needs

B) Vroom expectancy theory

C) Alderfer's ERG theory

D) McClelland's acquired needs theory

E) Argyris's maturity-immaturity continuum

26) The most fundamental motivation theory that begins with an individual feeling a need is ________.

A) ERG theory

B) equity theory

C) Herzberg's two-factor theory

D) needs-goal theory

E) Porter-Lawler theory

27) According to the Vroom expectancy theory, motivation strength ________.

A) depends on an individual's perceived fairness of an employment situation and finds that perceived inequities can lead to changes in behavior

B) is decreased as the perceived value of the result of behavior is increased

C) causes people to quit jobs if they perceive unfair treatment

D) is determined by the perceived value of the result of performing a behavior and the perceived probability the behavior will cause the result to materialize

E) only increases when people want to maximize their personal rewards over the short-term

28) The difference between needs-goal theory and Vroom's expectancy theory is that Vroom's theory ________.

A) addresses the issue of motivation strength

B) considers issues of equity

C) separates motivators into intrinsic and extrinsic rewards

D) establishes a hierarchy of needs

E) deals with how need are "acquired"

29) The theory based on the concept that individuals compare their inputs and outcomes with their co-workers to determine if they are being treated fairly is ________.

A) expectancy theory

B) ERG theory

C) equity theory of motivation

D) Porter-Lawler theory of motivation

E) acquired needs theory

30) Joe is disappointed when his team mate Tim gets promoted because he feels that he has worked harder and is more deserving of the promotion. Which of the following will most likely help Joe to overcome this sense of inequity?

A) He should encourage Tim to reduce his level of effort.

B) He should avoid distorting the status of his job.

C) He should reduce his level of effort.

D) He should not change his behavior.

E) He should increase his level of effort.



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