131. By snapping your fingers just before you blow a : 1990157
131. By snapping your fingers just before you blow a gentle puff of air into someone’s eyes
causing them to blink, you can teach them to blink to just the sound of yourfingers
snapping, even when you no longer blow the puff of air. This is an example of ______.
a. shapingc. reinforcement
b. modelingd. conditioning
132. Watson taught Little Albert to fear a white rat by pairing the rat with ______.
a. a frightening noisec. threats of punishment
b. bright lightsd. a foul smell
133. If Watson’s ideas are correct, then when Albert learned to fear the rat (in Watson’s
famous experiment), he ______.
a. simply responded to the environment
b. was affected by unconscious mental images
c. was responding to inherited biological fears
d. was avoiding the self-actualizing tendency
134. Suppose that Little Albert, now a mature adult, returned to the laboratory of John
Watson, the strict behaviorist, to complain of the damage done to him as a child.
Which of the following methods would Watson NOT be likely to use in curing Albert
of his fear of soft, furry things?
a. Play soft, melodious music whenever a soft, furry item was presented.
b. Talk to him to get him to discover why he really had this fear.
c. Present Albert with very tiny furry objects that he did not fear and then gradually
increase their size.
d. Give Albert a dollar bill every time he actually touched a soft, furry object.
135. A young woman, who was bitten as a child by a Great Dane, is now deathly afraid
of all large dogs. If she were to come to the laboratory of John Watson, the strict
behaviorist, in hopes of overcoming her fear, which of the following methods would
he NOT be likely to use?
a. Play soft, melodious music whenever a large dog was present.
b. Talk to her to get her to discover why she really had this fear.
c. Show her small, cute puppies and then gradually increase the size of the dogs
d. Give her a dollar bill each time she actually touched a large dog.
136. If you were a behavioral psychologist trying to help cure the fears of a client of
yours, which of the following methods would you be MOST likely to use?
a. Talk to the client in an effort to help him develop insight as to why he had
the fears and how they had developed.
b. Work with him to pay attention to his “self-talk” and see how it was controlling
his behaviors and contributing to his fears.
c. Teach him to relax in the presence of those things of which he was afraid.
d. Help him to see how his failure to self-actualize was perpetuating his fears and
preventing him from developing his inner self.
137. The graduate student of Watson’s who successfully reconditioned a boy who showed
a fear of rabbits by presenting the rabbit at a great distance and gradually bringing it
closer, was ______.
a. Ivan Pavlovc. Margaret Mahler
b. B. F. Skinnerd. Mary Cover Jones
138. Like Watson, Skinner believed that psychology should study only ______.
a. mental processesc. elements of thought
b. perceptionsd. observable behavior
139. Which of the following psychologists would probably find his views in the
LEAST agreement with the other three?
a. Jamesc. Watson
b. Skinnerd. Pavlov
140. Skinner added a new element to conditioning called ______.
a. vicarious learningc. modeling