121.Groupthink occurs in:
a.newly formed groups whose members were arbitrarily selected and who are assigned to make programmed decisions
b.groups in which members have dissimilar backgrounds
c.standing committees whose members are under no pressure to agree
d.groups whose members are elected to serve as figureheads
e.highly cohesive groups where there is a great deal of pressure to agree with each other
122.Groupthink is most likely to occur when:
a.the group is leaderless
b.the group is culturally diverse
c.there is an established procedure for problem solving
d.the group is insulated from others with different perspectives
e.any of these conditions occur
123.Which of the following statements explains why groups can produce better solutions than individuals in decision-making situations?
a.Formal groups have no group norms.
b.Groups cannot experience information overload.
c.Groups are able to view problems from multiple perspectives.
d.Groups take additional time to carefully evaluate all options.
e.All of these are reasons why groups can produce better solutions than individuals in a decision-making situation.
124.Which of the following statements about group decision making is true?
a.The pitfalls of group decision making are inevitable.
b.Managers cannot overcome the problems associated with group decision making.
c.One potential problem with group decision making is time availability.
d.Ethnocentrism can be used to overcome the pitfalls of group decision making.
e.Structured conflict is one of the primary pitfalls of group decision making.
125.__________ is the emotional reaction that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional.
126.The __________ approach to decision making is a method in which an individual or a subgroup is assigned the role of a critic.
127.Volkswagen has decided to cut costs by eliminating 5,000 jobs annually until its business has been restored to profitability—a goal that could take as many as ten years to accomplish. Union representatives have responded to this decision with emotional outbursts of anger. VW has created:
128.The first step in a devil’s advocacy program is to:
a.select a devil’s advocate
b.create decision criteria
c.gather all the relevant information
d.establish a numeric value for each alternative
e.generate a potential solution
129.Studies of the proper use of the devil’s advocacy and dialectical inquiry approaches have shown that these methods:
a.lead to more a-type conflict
b.lead to improved decision mentoring
c.lead to less acceptance of decisions once they have been made
d.introduce c-type conflict into the decision-making process
e.eliminate all organizational conflict
130.Which of the following is an approach to structured conflict?
b.nominal group technique