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11.Program goals represent ____. a.empirical indicators b.desired outcomes c.inputs d.standards 12.With regard to evaluation designs,

Question : 11.Program goals represent ____. a.empirical indicators b.desired outcomes c.inputs d.standards 12.With regard to evaluation designs, : 1774309

11.Program goals represent ____.

a.empirical indicators

b.desired outcomes

c.inputs

d.standards

12.With regard to evaluation designs, which of the following statements is not accurate?

a.variation in the levels of treatment delivered by a program can be a major threat to the validity of even randomized evaluation studies

b.uncontrolled variation in treatment is equivalent to unreliable measurement of the independent variable

c.controlled variation in treatment represents a threat to generalizability

d.varying degrees of participation by clients in a program will impact the outcome

13.Randomization may not be appropriate for assignment of people to treatment or programs for all of the following reasons except ____.

a.practical reasons

b.agency support

c.ethical reasons

d.legal reasons

14.Relating to randomization, which statement is inaccurate?

a.as the number of exceptions to random assignment increases, the statistical equivalence of the experimental and control groups decreases

b.when exceptions to random assignment are made, no bias enters the selection process

c.randomization in experiments for evaluation purposes are best suited for programs where exceptions are at a minimum

d.Random assignment of people to receive some especially desirable or punitive treatment may not be possible for legal, ethical, and practical reasons.

15.If the number of subjects in a program is small, statistical tests can detect only very large program effects of differences in outcome measures between the two groups. This illustrates the problem of ____.

a.generalizability

b.statistical conclusion validity

c.maturation

d.reliability

16.Treatment integrity is ____.

a.roughly equivalent to measurement reliability

b.roughly equivalent to measurement validity

c.the difference between the experimental intervention is delivered as intended

d.both reliable and valid

17.If a randomized experiment is used for evaluation purposes, ____.

a.case flow must be adequate to produce enough subjects in both the experimental and the control groups

b.program staff may minimize the exceptions to randomization

c.special interventions must be consistently applied

d.maintaining the desired level of control over experimental conditions

18.In the home detention studies used in your text as examples of randomized studies, the authors concluded that ____.

a.randomization allows generalization

b.randomization allows for reliability

c.randomization does not control for variation in treatment integrity and program delivery

d.randomization does control for variation in treatment integrity and program delivery

19.What can be said about the relationship between process evaluations and impact assessments?

a.process evaluations can be used in interpreting results from an impact assessment

b.process evaluations monitor program implementation but impact assessments do not answer questions about a program’s effects

c.process evaluation cannot be used to interpret outcomes

d.there is no relationship between impact assessments and process evaluations

20.Which of the following is not correct with respect to process evaluations?

a.information about program implementation can be linked to outcome measures, even when accompanied by a process evaluation

b.process evaluation aids in interpreting results from impact assessments

c.process evaluations are useful when a researcher is interested in the performance of specific tasks within a program

d.process evaluations assume that tasks within a program are linked to program outcomes

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