11.In Widom’s research purpose the relationship between early child abuse : 1774304
11.In Widom’s research purpose on the relationship between early child abuse and later delinquency or adult criminal behavior was ___________:
a.valid and reliable
b.critical and valid
12.Individual agencies maintain silo databases. Silo databases refer to __________________________________________.
a.stacks of data that are isolated from each other
d.computerized criminal history
13.Which statement is false with regard to agencies collecting original research data?
a.cooperation to add research questions is likely to be successful if you are asking for a major additional effort on the part of the agency staff
b.the cooperation of the staff and their organizations are directly proportional to the intrusiveness of the data collection
c.if the research project is likely to save the agency money or improve staff performance the chances of enlisting assistance is greater
d.Researchers have less control over the data collection process when they rely on agency staff
14.Which statement is true about longitudinal research?
a.Data are useless
b.the changes in the operational definitions the agencies use to specify key terms does not change overtime
c.the procedures the agency uses to collect the data will remain the same over time
d.as the time interval under investigation increases, so does the potential for change in measurement.
15.Which statement is false with regard to validity and reliability of agency records?
a.the shorter the time intervals under study the greater the concern about procedure changes
b.longitudinal researchers must be concerned about changes in operational definitions over time
c.longitudinal researchers must be concerned about changes in procedures over time
d.the longer the time interval under study the greater the concern about procedure changes
16.Which behavior would have the least impact on the validity and reliability of a study using agency records?
a.discretion of prosecutors in who to charge and what counts to add
b.decisions that are made by police officers to arrest versus give a warning
c.recognition on the part of the researcher that criminal justice data is a composite of criminal behavior, ability to detect that behavior and decisions about system response to that behavior
d.decisions made by probation officers to revoke on new crimes and not technical violations
17.It is often said that agency data are not designed for research purposes. Which of the following support that statement?
a.some criminal justice agencies collect data because they want to help researchers
b.often the data collected by criminal justice agencies is for their research use
c.agency records can be easily adapted to research purposes
d.data they do collect often reflect discretionary decisions by numerous individuals.
18.Which of the following situations would not have an impact upon error in agency records?
a.computers have the capacity to magnify clerical error
b.a single crime could be recorded by two agencies, thus making that event over-represented
c.having very little data to input
d.even rare events can be recorded improperly
19.Which of the following would be an example of content analysis in criminal justice research?
a.counting the stories devoted to the coverage of crime in your local newspaper
b.counting the number of robberies that happen in your city
c.measuring the average length of time from arrest to disposition in your city
d.determining the average number of inmates housed in your city’s jail on a daily basis
20.Which of the following would be an accurate statement concerning the use of content analysis?
a.content analysis involves only a systematic study of messages
b.content analysis involves a systematic study of messages and the meaning that those messages have for citizens
c.content analysis involves only the meaning of speeches given concerning criminal justice issues
d.content analysis methods can only be used with agency reports to determine what they contain