11.A ____ is a nontax method of increasing the cost or reducing the volume of imported goods.
12.A(n) ____ is a direct tax on imported goods designed to make it more expensive to buy those goods, in hopes of reducing the volume of those imported goods in a given country.
13.The Japanese government has proclaimed that its snow is different from that found in any other region of the world. To make sure the product is safe for local use, all snow skis marketed in Japan must be manufactured in Japan. This is an example of a(n):
c.voluntary export restraint
d.government import standard
14.Russia imposed limits on how much poultry, beef, and pork could be imported into the nation from the European Union (EU) in retaliation to limits the EU placed on how much grain Russia could export. What type of nontariff barrier did Russia use to control the amount of poultry, beef, and pork it imported from the EU?
15.The European Union (EU) bans the importation of hormone-fed U.S. beef and bioengineered corn and soybeans on safety grounds although Americans eat this food every day. This ban is so consumers in the EU will buy domestic beef and products made from domestically produced corn and soybeans. This ban is an example of:
b.an involuntary import restraint
e.a government import standard
16.____ are long-term, low-interest loans, cash grants, and tax deductions used to develop and protect companies or special industries.
b.Voluntary export restraints
17.To protect its farmers, Japan put limitations on the amount of mushrooms and leeks that could be imported into Japan from China. This limitation is an example of a(n):
b.voluntary import restraint
d.agricultural import standard
18.The trade agreement that represented the most significant change to the regulations governing global trade during the 1990s was the:
a.Maastricht Treaty of Europe
b.North American Free Trade Agreement
c.General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
e.Asian Free Trade Arrangement
19.The signing of the ____ created a regional trading zone.
a.the Maastricht Treaty
b.the Pact for Free Trade Agreement
c.the Global Agreement for Transactional Trading (GATT)
d.the South-East Asia Pact
e.all of these
20.The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT):
a.decreases both tariffs and nontariff barriers
b.puts stricter limits on government subsidies
c.eliminates tariffs in ten specific industries
d.protects intellectual property, such as trademarks, patents, and copyright
e.does all of these