11.  When investigators study changes in different ethnic and racial

Question : 11.  When investigators study changes in different ethnic and racial : 1991670

11.  When investigators study changes in different ethnic and racial groups across several decades by using Census information in the United States,

a.  there are problems interpreting the data because criteria for inclusion in racial categories have changed several times over the past century.

b.  the data are usually highly reliable people have always been placed into well-defined categories.

c.  it is difficult because the government does not release information from the Census that could be controversial.

d.  the data are usually reliable because the Census has always relied on self-categorization, so it has avoided categories that aren’t useful.

12.  When researchers have investigated behavioral differences between people in China and people in the West,

a.  there have been problems because people in the research self-identify the group to which they belong.

b.  there are many ethnic groups in China that differ greatly, so generalizations based simply on being Chinese are suspect.

c.  most people in China are not literate, so they cannot participate fully in research projects and the results are limited.

d.  there are too many people in China to be able to get a realistic picture of the population, so comparisons to the West are difficult.

13.  When researchers have study differences between Hispanic and Anglo residents of the United States,

a.  the research shows few reliable differences between the groups.

b.  the research relies on categories recognized by behavioral scientists.

c.  the research often ignores the differences among people within each group itself.

d.  the research typically uses categorization data from several decades ago, so the results are questionable.

14.  Research that compares people of different ethnic groups

a.  relies on the fact that differences in behaviors and attitudes of people within each comparison group tends to be small.

b.  leads to questionable data because of the problems with the interpretation paradox.

c.  is easier when it makes use of etics rather than emics.

d.  often assumes with no proof that behaviors that differ across groups are based on racial or cultural differences.

15. When a person self-identifies his or her race or ethnicity, one of the problems that arises is that

a. the person may self-categorize himself or herself differently depending on what is to be gained from being included in a given category.

b. the person is likely to categorize himself or herself according to the father’s category and ignore the mother’s.

c. the person may have a difficult time differentiating race and ethnicity in the self-categorization.

d. the person is likely to place himself or herself in multiple categories that are mutually contradictory.

16.  Research findings that appear to hold true across virtually all cultures are called

a.  etics.

b.  emics.

c.  absolute constructs.

d.  universals.

17.  Research findings that seem to apply to only some cultures are called

a.  etics.

b.  emics.

c.  relative constructs.

d.  ethnic relatives.

18.  The virtually universal taboo against cannibalism would be regarded by researchers as

a.  a universal construct.

b.  a hypothetical construct.

c.  an etic.

d.  an emic.

19.  In some cultures it is acceptable for a woman and a man to shake hands when they first meet, but that would not be acceptable in other cultures.  This differences illustrates

a.  a universal construct.

b.  a hypothetical construct.

c.  an etic.

d.  an emic.

20.  The idea that assumes that behavioral phenomena are basically the same, regardless of culture, relies on

a.  absolutism.

b.  emics rather than etics.

c.  the interpretation paradox.

d.  content validity.

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