11.  One limitation to naturalistic observation that a.  investigators need to

Question : 11.  One limitation to naturalistic observation that a.  investigators need to : 1991651

11.  One limitation to naturalistic observation is that

a.  investigators need to manipulate a large number of variables to get a good understanding of the behaviors of interest.

b.  investigators cannot always tell which factor in the environment is causing behaviors to occur.

c.  the research environment is usually too simplified for researchers to have confidence that the results would occur naturally.

d.  investigators usually manipulate only one or two variables in a given observational study.

12.  Research in a natural setting in which scientists investigate a wide range of behavior is called

a.  anthropomorphic.

b.  theromorphic.

c.  ethological.

d.  reactive.

13.  The researcher Jane Goodall observed the behaviors and social structures of chimpanzees in the wild for many years.  Her research could be classified as

a.  experimental.

b.  a case study.

c.  systematic observation.

d.  ethological.

14.  Troisi et al. (1991) suggested that studying the degree to which schizophrenic patients make eye contact with an interviewer and how often they close their eyes can help predict recovery from the disorder.  The research approach that involves monitoring these and other behaviors reflects what approach?

a.  Ethological

b.  Anthropomorphic

c.  Time sampling

d.  Particularistic

15.  When researchers interpret the behaviors of nonhuman animals in terms of human thought and emotion, the researchers are engaging in

a.  observer bias.

b.  systematic observation.

c.  anthropomorphism.

d.  subject reactivity.

16.  When researchers attempt to figure out the reasons for a nonhuman animal’s behavior based on what cognitive processes might be taking place in the animal’s mind, the research is engaging in

a.  particularistic research.

b.  theromorphism.

c.  ethological research.

d.  observer bias.

17.  In many fables, human characteristics are attributed to animals, reflecting

a.  universalism.

b.  observer bias.

c.  subject reactivity.

d.  anthropomorphism.

18.  The relatively new area of psychology that focuses on human behavior by focusing on the development of our species is called

a.  evolutionary psychology.

b.  anthropomorphism.

c.  theromorphism.

d.  universalism.

19.  Troisi (1999) developed a coding system for documenting behaviors when people talk so he could code the actions of psychiatric patients.  This approach is

a.  evolutionary.

b.  anthropomorphic.

c.  ethological.

d.  experimental.

20.  In observational research, when you observe how long behaviors of interest last, you are engaging in

a.  time-point sampling.

b.  continuous real-time measurement.

c.  time-interval sampling.

d.  cluster sampling.

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