11. In cultures that value relationships, people tend to show : 1991634
11. In cultures that value relationships, people tend to show _____ in their responses to survey items.
12. The tendency to give the same rating on a survey to different questions, regardless of the content of the questions, is known as
d. impression management.
13. A survey item on which respondents provide their own answers is
a. chronically accessible.
14. A survey item on which respondents must choose from a set of answers provided on a questionnaire is
a. subject to high levels of response bias.
b. not susceptible to social desirable bias.
c. a closed-ended question.
d. less prone to nondifferentiation than other types of items.
15. On the United States census that everybody has to complete, people identify their racial/ethnic status by selecting from among options provided on the form. This type of a question is
a. a closed-ended question.
b. almost always responded to accurately.
c. part of the sampling frame.
d. used because respondents are from a self-selected sample.
16. On a questionnaire that contained a question asking you to list risky activities in which you have engaged, such a question would
a. require temporarily accessible information.
b. call for an open-ended response.
c. have a high likelihood of resulting in nondifferentiation.
d. be likely to result in optimizing in the answer.
17. Researchers sometimes avoid open-ended items on questionnaires because such items
a. are not very scientific.
b. permit too limited a range of responses.
c. can result in responses that are difficult to code and categorize
d. generally provide details about behaviors but not the context in which they occur.
18. An advantage of open-ended questions is that they
a. are easy to code for later data analysis.
b. lead most respondents to answer using a similar perspective.
c. are convenient for coding and scoring when the population is large.
d. provide a rich set of details and diverse responses.
19. An advantage of a closed-ended question is that
a. it is easy to code for later data analysis.
b. respondents to such an item are not likely to be susceptible to social desirability bias.
c. it allows for a great amount of diverse detail from each respondent.
d. they have higher validity levels than do open-ended questions.
20. Smyth et al. (2009) have shown that researchers can get longer, more complete answers to open-ended questions on internet-based surveys by
a. modifying the original closed-ended questions.
b. increasing the sizes of the boxes into which respondents type their answers.
c. encouraging respondents to engage in satisficing.
d. stressing the importance of optimizing their answers.