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11.  If a psychologist developed a test to estimate the

Question : 11.  If a psychologist developed a test to estimate the : 1991645

11.  If a psychologist developed a test to estimate the extent to which a person would experience post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing a stressful situation, the score on that test would constitute a

a.  confirmatory variable.

b.  measured variable.

c.  predictor variable.

d.  criterion variable.

12.  A researcher might decide to compute correlations in the data analysis after completing an experimental study.  Such an approach would involve

a.  a correlational study.

b.  structural equation modeling.

c.  heterogeneous subgroups.

d.  correlational analysis.

13.  When you conduct a correlational study with two variables, you cannot assess causal relationships among variables because an outside variable might be causally affecting the two variables in your research.  This becomes an issue of

a.  the third variable problem.

b.  directionality problem.

c. restricted range problem.

d.  heterogeneous subgroups problem.

14.  Psychologists have discovered that people high in neuroticism associate sex with death more than people low in neuroticism do.  We can’t conclude that neuroticism causes people to associate sex with death because the outside variables that lead to neuroticism could also lead to thoughts sex and death.  This illustrates the

a.  directionality problem.

b.  third variable problem.

c.  restricted range problem.

d.  latent variable problem.

15.  When two variables are correlated, we often don’t know which might be a causal variable.  This limitation refers to the

a.  restricted range problem.

b.  third variable problem.

c.  directionality problem.

d.  latent variable problem.

16.  Students who are interested in a subject may spend more time studying that subject, so there is a relationship between these two variables.  We don’t know if the interest in the topic leads to more studying or if more studying generates greater levels of interest.  This uncertainty illustrates the

a.  path analysis problem.

b.  third variable problem.

c.  restricted range problem.

d.  directionality problem.

17.  If you conduct a correlational study, you can sometimes compute t-values in analyzing your results.  Such an analysis would let you conclude that

a.  there is a nonlinear relationship between the two variables you investigated.

b.  your predictor variable is more important than your criterion variable.

c.  your variables are related but you cannot assess causation.

d.  there is little chance that there was a directionality problem in the study.

18.  The largest value a correlation coefficient can have is

a.  0.00.

b.  1.00.

c.  100.

d.  undefined; it can take on any value.

19.  When two variables are related in such a way that when one increases, so does the other, you can conclude that

a.  there is no problem with directionality.

b.  a confirmatory analysis is inappropriate.

c.  the relation between variables is positive.

d.  there are no latent variables affecting the relationship.

20.  When two variables are related in such a way that when one increases, the other decreases, you can conclude that

a.  there is no problem with directionality.

b.  a confirmatory analysis is inappropriate.

c.  there are no latent variables affecting the relationship.

d.  the relation between variables is negative.

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