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A debt bondage worker who has a contract with an employer for a specified period of time.
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Indentured Servants
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1st grassroots american social movement series of revivals making church more emotional.
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Great Awakening
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Leading advocate of a paternalistic sociological defense of slavery who argued that blacks needed the guidance, restraint, and protection of white masters, and who caompared the treatment of southern slaves favorably to that of free blacks and whites working in northern factories.
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George Fitzhugh
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Proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line. Rejected by Lincoln.
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Crittenden Compromise
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Offered by John J. Crittenden, passed in the Senate, but Republican radicals still asserted that slavery was the main cause of the war.
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Crittenden Resolution
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First major battle of civil war; victory for south.
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Manassas Junction-Bull Run
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First battle of Civil War.
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Fort Sumter
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Preventing recognition of the Confederacy by European nations
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Northern Strategy
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Political strategy carried out by Nixon to win over Southern whites to the Republican Party; it succeeded through administration policies such as delaying school desegregation plans.
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Southern Strategy
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Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. Also used to label all Democratic opponents of Lincoln. Led by Clement L. Vallandigham and was very strong in the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
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Copperheads
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Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862; declared all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states were be free.
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Emancipation Proclamation
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Bloody battle in 1862. Lee v. McClellan;  Where Union soldiers found the confederates plan they had dropped. Lee receded which made this batte a turning point in war!
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Antietam
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An economic system used to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
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Mercantilism
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Plan to suffocate south's supplies, liberate the slaves, cut it in half, divide it into pieces, capture Richmond, and grind it to submission.
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Anaconda Plan
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Passed by Congress in 161, declaring that all slaves used for insurrectionary purposes would be considered freed.
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Confiscation Acts
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Andrew Johnson's attempt to carry out Lincoln's plan for the political Reconstruction of the 11 former states of the Confederacy.
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Presidential Reconstruction
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Process led by Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights.
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Congressional Reconstruction
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An amendment in 1865 to the U.S. Constitution that abolished slavery.
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Thirteenth Amendment
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Citizenship, state due process, applies Bill of Rights to the states, revision to the division of Representatives,that denied public office to anyone who has rebelled against the United States.
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Fourteenth Amendment
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Suffrage no longer restricted by race.
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Fifteenth Amendment
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Required the President to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees. When Andrew Johnson removed his secretary of war in violation of the act, he was impeached by the house but remained in office when the Senate fell one vote short of removing him.
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Tenure of Office Act
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Republican RB Hayes v. Democratic Samuel Tilden, close election.
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1876 Election
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Withdrew federal soldiers from their remaining position in the South, enacted federal legislation that would stimulate industrialization in the South, appointed Democrats to patronage positions in the south, and appointed a Democrat to the president's cabinet.
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Compromise of 1877
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An age of recognition of the sad state of the human condition and the need for major reforms.
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Enlightenment
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Required 50% of voters of the state to take a loyalty oath; permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution yet Lincoln refused to sign this bill.
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Wade-Davis Bill
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Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies.
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Navigation Acts
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A long standing English policy of not enforcing parliamentary laws that were created in order to keep the colonies obedient to England.
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Salutary Neglect
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A colonial war fought in North America in 1754-1763 between France and England that resulted in the English conquest of Canada and confirmed England's place in controlling colonial North America.
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French and Indian War
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A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
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Proclamation Line of 1763
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The turning-point battle of the American Revolution, in 1777 which ended Great Britain's hope of dividing New England from the rest of the colonies. Fought in New York state and ended with the surrender of British General John Burgoyne to American General Horatio Gates.
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Saratoga
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Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
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Declaratory Act
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An act passed by British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents.
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Stamp Act
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A system of trade that occurred during the colonial era.
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Triangle Trade
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A statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, that announced the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
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Declaration of Independence
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In 1774, Delegates from 12 colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to decide whether any action should be made against Britain.
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First Continental Congress
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Representatives from each of the colonies met in Philydelphia to start an official government and to build an army and a navy.
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Second Continental Congress
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Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of public land in the West that was ceded by the states.
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Land Ordinance of 1785
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Provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
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Northwest Ordinance of 1787
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A farmer uprising in Massachusetts due to foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
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Shay's rebellion
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A group of American patriots that were from the pre-independence North American British colonies.
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Sons of Liberty
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Organization founded by Samuel Adams that consisted of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and in the colonies.
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Committees of Correspondance
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Jefferson and Burr tied in the number of electoral votes, yet was significant because political power shifted between the parties while causing more conflict between Burr and Hamilton.
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Election of 1800
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Federalists had loose constructionism. Anti-Federalists had strict constructionism.  Loose meant strong central gov., where Federal gov. has more power. Strict meant a weak central gov., more power to people/states.
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Strict and Loose Constructionism
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In 1686, the British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor.
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Dominion of New England
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Political party started by Alexander Hamilton, who wanted a strong federal govt. and to promote industry and trade.
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Federalists
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Opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states; usually the poorer classes.
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Anti-federalists
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Created by Alexander Hamilton to stabilized the American economy. Consisted of federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts. Also proposed the 1st U.S bank to restore American credit.
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Hamilton's Financial Program
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A treaty between Britain and America, which made Britain withdraw it's troops from the Northwest Posts in exchange for many more concession from America.
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Jay Treaty
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Treaty between Spain and America that settled the Florida-Georgia border dispute by defining the border. It also removed the payment of tariffs by American ships at the port of New Orleans.
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Pinckney Treaty
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An uprising by the small farmers of western Pennsylvania against an excise tax on whiskey that fell heavily on western farmers who condensed their corn to whiskey. They reused to pay the tax, attacked tax collectors, and began a march to Pittsburgh. President Washington sent 13000 and the rebels' protest quickly ended.
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Whiskey Rebellion
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Anonymous French ministers X, Y, and Z required a loan of 32 million florins and $250,000 in cash to consider negotiations. Americans demanded war after this incident.
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XYZ Affair
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A series of laws in 1798 that restricted activities of people who opposed Federalist policies.
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Alien and Sedition Acts
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Political statements in 1798 that took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that the states had the right and duty to declare any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution as unconstitutional.
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Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
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A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, that declared the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.
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1793 Proclamation of Neutrality
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The mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North, spurred especially by the new job opportunities during WWI and the 1920s.
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Great Migration
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Jefferson purchased french land west of the Missouri River for $15 million in 1803.
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Louisiana Purchase
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Admitted Missouri as slave state, Maine as free; and a 36,30 line drawn between slave and free states.
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Missouri Compromise of 1820
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President Monroe declared North and South America free and independent, therefore not subject to European colonization. It also declared that any colonization would be considered an act of aggression against the United States.
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Monroe Doctrine
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House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a corrupt bargain.
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1824 Election
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An 1824 political scandal that arose when the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.
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Corrupt Bargain
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(Tariff of 1828) Raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. It protected the North but harmed the South. The South claimed that it was discriminatory and unconstitutional.
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Tariff of Abominations
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Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void so Jackson responded with the Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff. Compromise succeeded.
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Nullification Crisis
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Henry Clays 3 pronged system to promote industry. -A strong Banking System -a protective tariff -Federally funded transportation network
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The American System
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Vested rights in contract clauses; expanded Court's jurisdiction; judicial nationalism; which blocked state regulations that limited property rights, freeing American commerce from restraints
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Marshall Court
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Led an aborted slave rebellion in 1822 in Charleston that aggravated the anxiety of possible federal interference with the institution of slavery/
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Denmark Vesey
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Founded on May 14, 1607, was the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States.
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Jamestown, Virginia
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Led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation.
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Nat Turner
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A Virginia slave who planned a slave uprising in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state. They intended to seize the federal arsenal at Richmond, but the plan was betrayed by other slaves. Prosser and his comrades were captured by the state militia and executed.
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Gabriel Prosser
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The system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power.
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Spoils System
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An argument between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne, about the issue states' rights versus national power.
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Webster-Hayne Debate
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A protection tariff in the United States\ that was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still unsatisfactory to southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates.
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Tariff Act of 1832
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A states' rights party in South Carolina that attempted to nullify federal law. They were trying to find the right balance between local interests and central government powers in the earlly 1830s.
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Nullification Crisis
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Opposed Jackson. Supported the bank of U.S., tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and political action for social reform. Yet they where divided on how they stood on terms of slavery.
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Whigs
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Became the Whig party during Jackson's second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development.
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National Republican
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A form of government in which citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives.
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Democratic
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A result of Henry Clay's efforts to soothe South Carolina's anxiety about the Tariff of Abominations. Caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted this compromise.
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Compromise Tariff of 1833
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In 1639, the first constitution in the colonies that was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
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Fundamental Orders
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In 1833 President Jackson was authorized to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them . Was never invoked. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
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Force Bill
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Introduced in Washington D.C. by Southerners to prevent Congress from considering the requests of abolitionist petitions. It was an attempt to prevent debate about slavery.
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Gag Rule
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A Dec. 1828 protest against the tariff of abominations. S.C. threatened to secede if the tariff wasn't repealed, and they said a state had the right to reject federal law.
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South Caroline Exposition and Protest
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Ideas that emerged mainly in literature in the mid-19th century centered around individualism and the rejection of traditional religion.
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Transcendentalism
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The number of denominations increased and delivered different interpretations of the Bible. Also caused traveled from West to east in the Second Great Awakening.
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Second Great Awakening
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A reform movement. Often called the antislavery movement
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Abolitionist Movement
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First women's right's convention in US which was led by Elizabeth Stantonand and Lucretia Mott.
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Seneca Falls Convention
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First coherent school of American art.
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Hudson River School
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A movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization. It emphasized nature, the individual, the common man, mystery and imagination.
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Romanticism
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Henry Clay vs. James K. Polk. Polk won.
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Election of 1844
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Led poor former indentured servants and frontiersman on a rampage against Indians and colonial government.
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Nathaniel Bacon
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In 1846-1848, a conflict after US annexation of Texas; Mexico still considered Texas its own; U.S. won and was granted all land from Texas to California in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
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Mexican-American War
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Belief that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from sea to sea, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
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Manifest Destiny
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New tract of land gained from the Mexican war caused dispute between North and South over slavery within the the new land. The Wilmot Proviso flatly prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican war.
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Wilmot Proviso
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A political party that opposed the extension of slavery into any of the territories newly acquired from Mexico.
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Free Soil Party
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Plan intended to reconcile North and South on the issue of slavery; it recognized the principle of popular sovereignty and included a strong fugitive slave law.
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Compromise of 1850
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Georgia had no original jurisdiction in the matter, since the Cherokee Nation is a dependent nation.
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Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
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Indian nation is a distinct political community in which laws of georgia have no force.
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Worcester v. Georgia
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Whether Texas should be annexed as a free or slave state.
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Texas Issue
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Acquired in 1848 from Mexico. Went to war with Mexico over border issues. US won, paid $15 million for Canada and New Mexico. Rio Grande was established as border.
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Mexican Cession
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Acquired in 1853 from Mexico. US got Arizona and New Mexico after Mexican-American War. US was interested in Southern route for trans-continental railroad. We were pushed for more territory in addition to what was gained from the war.
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Gadsden Purchase
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Formed in 1643, without the English crown's authorization, as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch.
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New England Confederation
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Took place in 1854. A group of southerners met with Spanish officials in Belgium to attempt to get more slave territory. They felt this would balance out congress. They tried to buy Cuba but the Spanish would not sell it. Southerners wanted to take it by force and the northerners were outraged by this thought
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Ostend Manifesto
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A War Hawk; supporter of states' rights; believed South Carolina had the right to nullify, or ignore, federal laws that they thought were wrong, part of Whig Party.
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John C. Calhoun
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A four-way race for the presidency that resulted in the election of a sectional minority president.
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Election of 1860
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Written by a white woman from the North named Harriet Beecher Stowe who wrote about the harshness of slavery.
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Uncle Tom's Cabin
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Forbid the imprisonment of runaway salves and guaranteed that they would have jury trials.
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Personal Liberty Laws
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Llaw passed in 1854 creating the kansas and nebraska territories but leaving the question of slavery open to residents thereby repealing the missouri compromise.
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Kansas-Nebraska Act
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A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute intesified the relations of the North and South.
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Bleeding Kansas
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Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property.
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Freeport Doctrine
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A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision.
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Lincoln-Douglas Debates
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A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
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Dred Scott v. Sandford
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A Virginia revolt in 1674 which was the first revolt in the American colonies and consisted of frontiersmen and protested against Native American raids; led to farmer's defeat.
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Bacon's Rebellion
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President of the United States at the beginning of the Civil War; inaugurated after seven states had already seced.
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Abraham Lincoln
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Chief Justice of Supreme Court. Part of 1857's Dred Scott decision in which he  ruled that Dred Scott was property, not a person, and therefore couldn't sue for his freedom.
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Roger Taney
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The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish the government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government activities.
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Popular Sovereignty
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A United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating was unconstitutional. It was also controversial because it was one of the first cases after the end of the American Civil War.
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Ex Parte Milligan
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a well-known U.S. federal court case which arose out of the American Civil War. It was a test of the authority of the President to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
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Ex Parte Merryman
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A Supreme Court case of 1862 in which they dcided the declared constitutional blockade of the Southern ports ordered by President Lincoln.
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Prize Cases
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An 1859 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of the federal government over state governments.
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Ableman v. Booth
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Reinforced the principle that federal law is superior to state.
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Prigg v. Pennsylvania
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Coined by Ralph Waldo Emerson; new era of commercial development, technological progress, and territorial expansion led by progressive new young generation.
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Young America
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Wrote The Impending Crisis, a book about slavery. Said the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery.
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Hinton Helper
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